TEXT FLY IN THE
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
Call No. ^ ?/ 4?^ x Jiccession No.
This book should be returned on or before the date
last marked below.
THE BOOK OF
RELIGION AND EMPIRE
PUBLISHED FOR THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY AT
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THE BOOK OF
RELIGION AND EMPIRE
A SEMI-OFFICIAL DEFENCE AND EXPOSITION OF
ISLAM WRITTEN BY ORDER AT THE COURT AND
WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE CALIPH MUTA-
WAKKIL (A.D. 847-861)
TRANSLATED WITH A CRITICAL APPARATUS FROM AN APPARENTLY
UNIQUE MS. IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY
A. MINGANA, D.D.
OP THE MSS. DEPARTMENT OF THE LIBRARY, AND SPECIAL LECTURER IN
ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER
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LONDON: BERNARD QUARITCH LIMITED
THE present work may possibly attract the attention of
some scholars and students of comparative religion. It is
a semi-official defence of Islam written at the command,
with the assistance, and in the court of the Caliph Muta-
wakkil (A.D. 847-861) ; the adversaries more frequently at-
tacked are the Christians, who, thanks to their numerical
strength, to the vigilance of the East-Syrian Patriarchs
residing in Baghdad, and to the influence of a successive
series of court-physicians, were the strongest opponents
of the State religion at the time of the 'Abbasid dynasty ;
in the second rank come Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, and
Parsees, who, however, are more severely handled. The
work is also likely to throw great light on the religious
tendencies of Muhammadanism at the time of its greatest
expansion and orthodoxy.
It is not our intention to give here a synopsis of the
general plan adopted in the execution of the work, nor
to express an opinion on its intrinsic merits and demerits. 1
We leave the reader to draw his own conclusions on the
subject ; but in order to help him in his task we have
1 A short essay in this direction was published in J.R.A.S^ 1920, pp.
481-488. In some respects it is the weightiest of all the works on Islam
that we have read for a long time, and during the last seven years we have
perused more than seven hundred Arabic MSS. on different subjects. The
author has displayed a literary art which has certain merits of its own,
and which, from many sentences such as "if the adversaries shout,' 1
appears to have been dictated to him by a series of public discussions
held in the court of Mutawakkil.
ventured to add a few short notes to some statements
which, to use a sentence of the author's, not two learned
men can regard as irrefragable.
The second half of the eighth and the first half of the
ninth centuries were, owing to the somewhat tolerant
attitude of the Caliphs of Baghdad, marked by the first
serious shock of opinion between Christians and Muslims.
It was at this time that, in answer to certain objections
advanced by Christians, the ingenuity of the Muslim
writers gathered from scattered materials and purely
oral sources the weapons which in the same field of con-
troversy would place them on even terms with their
seemingly more favoured opponents. We do not believe
that the imposing number of Muhammad's miracles and
prophecies (with which we should compare Kur'an, xxix
49 ; xiii. 27-30 ; xvii. 92-97) would have been so skilfully
elaborated at so late a date as the eighth century, if
their compilers had not been forced so to act by ready
adversaries who had made the subject of thaumaturgy
a special point in their polemics against them. We have
here and there isolated cases of public discussions before
this period. The earliest and the most important record
seems to be the colloquy which took place in Syria be-
tween the Arab generals and the Monophysite Patriarch
of Antioch, John I., in the eighteenth year of the Hijrah
Sunday, 9th May, A.D. 639). The Syriac text of this
document has been published by F. Nau, 1 and we have
given a summary of it in the Journal of the Manchester
Egyptian and Oriental Society (1916, p. 35 seq.). On the
other hand, we know nothing about the discussion
between the Umayyad 'Abdul-Malik b. Marwan (A.D.
692-705) and Ibrahim, son of Rahib (monk) Tabarani. 2
* Journal Asiatique, 1915, 248.
2 Mentioned by Steinschneider, Polem. u. Apolog. Liter. 1877, No.
65, p. 82.
The outcome of the discussion in the second half of
the eighth century is known, on the Christian side, by
the Syriac writings of Timothy, Patriarch of the East
Syrian Church (A.D. 780-823). In one of his letters 1 he
records, by way of question and answer, the gist of the
public discussion that he had before the Caliph Mahdi,
about A.D. 783. At the end of the same century Abu
Nah of Anbar, the secretary of the Muslim Governor of
Mosul, wrote a refutation of the Kur'an, which Ebedjesu
of Nisibis 2 has registered in his Catalogue, compiled in
A.D. 1298. Assemani mentions a work entitled Discussion
between the monk Abu Karah and the Commander of the
Faithful? and Steinschneider, 4 who has included it in his
book as No. 64, believes that this Commander of the
Faithful was the Caliph Ma'mun (A.D. 813-833). This
treatise does not seem, however, to be of importance,
and it is even possible that it consists of a record by an
author of a later date of an event which had taken place
several decades earlier ; and the same may be said of the
above discussion between b. Marwan and Tabarani.
During the reign of Ma'mun, in whose time the edict
against the dogma of the eternity of the Kur'an was
issued, the better known Apology of Christianity by Kindi
saw the light. The exhaustive study of W. Muir 5
renders it unnecessary for us to enter into detail con-
cerning this work, but it would be useful here to remark
1 I read it in a MS., cf. al-Machriq for May and June, J 921.
2 Assemani, B. O. iii., i., p. 212. X /
8 Ibid, iii., i., p. 609. 4 Polem. u. Apol Lit. jJ" 3,
5 Apology of al-Kindy in Defence of Christianity, LQJ- |on. I read the
Arabic text in the edition of the Nile Mission Press, rpi2. A recent
reviewer in \hzjewish Quarterly Review has unsuccessfully tried to throw
doubts on the authenticity of this book which from internal and external
evidence is certainly one of the most genuine compositions that we possess
in the literature of the 9th century. Cf. Casanova, Mahomet et la fin du
e^ ii, Notes Compltmentaires.
that the present Defence seems to be an attempt to refute
lucubrations similar to those of Timothy or Kindi at an
interval of some twenty-five to thirty years. The epithet
" Garmecite," however, that the author applies to his
adversary, points to a man living or born in the region
of Mosul or that of the two Zabs, the word used by the
author in this connection being Jurmukani (cf. p. 81).
Facing the Muslim side, it is worth noticing that the
author of the present Defence speaks of some polemical
dissertations which in our days seem to be lost (p. 3).
It would be interesting also to have more details about
the pamphlet entitled Answer to Christians by 'Amr b.
Bahr al-Jahidh, the celebrated Mu'tazili writer who died
A.D. 869; it is recorded by Hajji Khalifah in his Biblio-
graphical Dictionary, 1 and by Steinschneider ; 2 and we
have no reliable information concerning the controversial
dissertation of Abu 'Isa Muhammad al-Warrak, which
occasioned an answer by the monophysite Yahya b. 'Adi
of Takrlt, 3 who died in A.D. 974. Without dilating on
the numerous but not very instructive publications of
later generations we may, therefore, venture to assert
that the present work, apart from its intrinsic value, is
in order of date one of the most ancient.
The historical environment which gave birth to the
present Defence is not too complex. The period of re-
ligious toleration referred to above was briskly changed
by Muta\ ^kkil into an era of recrudescence of Islamic
tendencies. This Caliph, whom Barhebraeus calls "a
hater of ' eLristians," 4 ordered that all churches built
since the commencement of Islam should be demolished,
1 iii- 353-
2 Ibid. No. 6 1, v. 73.
) 8 Ibid. pp. 128 und 146. See the recent work of A. Perier, Yahia b.
Adi, Petits traitts apologttiques (1920).
4 Chron. Syr. p. 155 (edit. Bedjan).
and forbade the employment of Christians in Government
offices and the display of crosses on Palm Sunday; he
also gave orders that wooden figures of demons should
be fixed on their doors, that they should wear yellow
cowls, and a zonarion round the waist, that they should
ride saddles with wooden stirrups with two globes
behind the saddle, that the men's clothes should have
inserted a couple of patches of colour different from that
of the clothes themselves, each patch to be four inches
wide, and the two patches were also to be of different
colour. Any Christian woman who went out of doors
was to wear a yellow tunic without band. 1 Under these
circumstances, it is highly creditable to the author not
to have employed a stringent style in his dealings
with the " members of the protected cults 7 ' (dhimmis:
said mostly of Jews and Christians). On the other hand,
his propensity to flattery is explicable by the pride of
Mutawakkil, who was pleased to be described as " the
shadow of God spread between Him and His creation/' 2
or "the rope extended between God and His servants." 3
The promulgation of the edict of the above persecu-
tion is ascribed by Tabari to 235/849. From the general
tenour of the present Defence it is clear, however, that
either the persecution had not yet begun when the work
was written, or that the work was edited some years
after the edict of the persecution was issued, i.e. at a
time when, owing to the unpopularity of its enactments,
or to the changed attitude of the Caliph himself, it had
reached the stage of a slow and natural death. The first
hypothesis seems to be irreconcilable with the author's
statement on p. 138, and the second would require, as
1 Tabari, 3, 3, 1387 seq., analysed in J. Zaydan's Ummayyads and
Abbasids (translated by D. S. Margoliouth), p. 169.
2 Mas'udi, vii. 278-279 (B. de Meynard). 8 Tabari 3, 3, 1387.
events moved in the palaces of the Caliphs, 1 a year not
far remote from A.D. 855, or six years after the promul-
gation of the edict of the persecution. This date has the
advantage of harmonising with the author's statement on
Since this Defence represents the first published work
of 'AH Tabari, it will be useful to gather all the available
information concerning his life and his works. Unfor-
tunately, historical references to him found in writers of
later date are scanty and confused. The very surname
of his father, the Syriac vocable Rabban, has been read
Zain, Zail, Rain, etc., by many historians, and this mis-
take, which can easily be accounted for by the use of
early and undotted Arabic letters on the part of Muslim
writers, who hardly knew any other Semitic language
besides Arabic, has been repeated by some well-known
Arabists, in spite of the clear explanation given to it by
the author himself in his medical work entitled Kun-
nash. This last Syriac word, or its Arabic equivalent
Jami\ was adopted by many Christian and Muslim physi-
cians as constituting the best title to be given to their
"complete " repertory of Graeco-Oriental physiology and
therapeutics or general pathology. Such is the title of
two works by John b. Serapion, one by George b. Bokhti-
sho', one by the priest Aaron, one by Isaac b. Hunain,
one by Sahir, one by Razi, one by Theodore, etc. 2
The mention made of Tabari by the Islamic authori-
ties may be summarised as follows :
1 The best work on the life in the palaces of the Caliphs is Miska-
waihi's Tajarib (or " Experiences of Nations "), translated by D. S. Margo-
liouth in 1921 (Oxford, vols. i.-iv.).
2 See Fihrist) pp. 296-303.
1. The General Historians. The better known com-
patriot of our Tabari, i.e. the famous historian Muham-
mad Tabari, mentions the author four times, in his
Annales, under the name : 'Ali b. Rabban, the Christian
writer (see 3, 2, 1276-1277; ibid. 1283; ibid. 1293, edit.
De Goeje), all in connection with Maziar of Tabaristan ;
and Mas'udi in his Muruj (viii. 326, edit. B. de Meynard)
gives a quotation from him describing a bird called
2. Fihrist (Fliigel, p. 296). " Ali b. Zail, 1 [with a Lam]
Abul-Hasan 'Ali b. Sahl at-Tabari. He wrote to Maziar
b. Karan. When he became Muslim at the hands of
Mu'tasim, the latter drew him near to himself, and his
merits became known in the Court. Then Mutawakkil
bestowed honour upon him and made him of the number
of his table-guests. He was a literary man and his books
are : " Paradise of Medicine ; Gift to the Kings ; The Kun-
ndsh ; Utility of Food \ Drink, and Medicinal Herbs" The
author of the Fihrist, who was writing about 120 years
after the death of Tabari, seems to have distinguished him
from 'Ali b. Rain, " the Christian " whom he mentions on
p. 316 as author of a book on Literature and Proverbs
according to Persians, Greeks, and Arabs. In reality this
'Ali appears to be identical with the author of this
Defence. Further, is not the Kunnash the same work as
that entitled Paradise of Medicine ? We shall presently
see that this book is preserved in some public libraries as
having both titles. The British Museum MS. 2 expressly
states, "This is the index of the chapters of the Kunnash
of 'Ali b. Rabban, which is entitled Paradise of Medicine"
3. Ibn al-Kifti (edit. Lippert, 1913, p. 231). "'AH b.
1 Possibly an error for RabL Cf. the quotation from b. abi Usaibi'ah
and b. al-Kifti given below.
2 Cod. CCCCXLV. p. 218, in Rieu's catalogue.
Zain l at-Tabari, abul-Hasan, the physician. He excelled
in the medical science, and was at the service of the
governors of Tabaristan. He studied philosophy and
devoted himself to natural science. After an insurrection
which took place in Tabaristan he went to Ray, where
he became tutor to Muhammad b. Zakaria' ar-Razi, who
learned much from him. Thence he repaired to Samarra
where he settled and wrote his Kunnash entitled Para-
disc of Medicine. . . . He is mentioned by Muhammad b.
Ishak an-Nadim in his book, in which he says : 'Abul-
Hasan 'Ali b. Zain, who is b. Sahl at-Tabari. Zain is the
name of Sahl, because he was a Rabbi to the Jews."
This last information is erroneous, because the author of
the Fihrist clearly states that the father of Tabari was a
Christian (cf. here pp. 19, 50) ; further, the reading of
" Zain " instead of " Rabban " in this quotation is evi-
dently an error of the copyist, because it is the word
"Rabban" and not "Zain" which means Rabbi.
4. Ibn Abi Usaibi'ah (edit, of the press of Wahab, 1882,
P- 309). "Ibn Rabban at-Tabari, who is abul-Hasan, 'Ali
b. Sahl, b. Rabban at-Tabari. Ibn Nadim of Baghdad
says (that his name was) Rabl, with a Lam, and relates
about him as follows : He was the writer of Maziar b.
Karan; when he became Muslim at the hands of Mu'tasim,
the latter drew him near to himself, and his merits be-
came known in the Court. Then the Caliph Mutawakkil
made him of the number of his table-guests. He was a
literary man and he instructed Razi in the medical pro-
fession. He was born and brought up in Tabaristan.
Among his sayings is the following : ' An ignorant
physician is liable to death/ Ibn Rabban at-Tabari has
among other books : Paradise of Medicine . . . ; Gentleness
1 This word is rightly corrected into Rabban in the edition of Cairo,
A.H. 1326. See pp. 128 and 155.
of Life ; Gift to the Kings ; The Kunnash ; Utility of Food
and Drink and Medicinal Herbs; Preservation of Health ;
Enchantment ; Scarification ; Preparation of Food"
5. Yakut reports in his geographical dictionary (edit.
Wtistenfeld, ii. 608) : " Something like the above narra-
tion has been recorded by 'Ali b. Zain at-Tabari, the
writer of Maziar. He had acquired medicine, and has
works on many subjects." We consulted Yakut's
Dictionary of Learned Men } recently edited by D. S.
Margoliouth, but were unable to find in it any reference
to our author ; nor is there any mention of him in Sam-
'ani's Ansab, an introduction to which. was written in
1912 by the same scholar.
6. Ibn Khallikan (life, 717, 8, p. 75 of Wustenfeld's
edit.) writes about Razi the celebrated physician: "He
studied medicine under the physician abul-Hasan *Ali b.
Zain at-Tabari, who has well-known works, such as the
Paradise of Medicine. He was first a Christian, then he
became a Muslim."
7. Far more important is the following historical
notice transmitted by the author himself in his work
Paradise of Medicine 1 above mentioned : "My father was
one of the writers of the town of Merw, and one of the
most esteemed and learned men in it. He had a re-
markable zeal for the acquisition of piety and the acquain-
tanceship of those who excelled in it. He was a constant
reader of books of medicine and philosophy, and he pre-
ferred medicine to the profession of his fathers. His
aim in it was not vainglory nor money, but esteem and
consideration. He was for that surnamed Rabban } which
means ' our master ' and 4 our teacher/ "
iCod. CCCCXLV. of the British Museum^ p. 217 (Rieu). The work is
also found in Cod. 6257 of Berlin^ v. p. 513 (Ahlwardt), and in Cod. 1910
of Gotha iii. p. 456 (Pertsch). Cf. also Cod. DLXVII. of Oxford, p. 135
8. In the MS. containing the present Defence the first
leaf, which had begun to fade, has been transcribed afresh
by a sixteenth century hand with the following historical
note: " This (MS.) has been transcribed from the auto-
graph of the author. 4 Ali b. Zain, the writer of this book
may God have mercy on him says, 'My father was
writer to Maziar, the master of Tabaristan/ When
Mu'tasim took Maziar at the hand of 'Abdallah b. Tahir,
('AH) asked for safety, and then he became one of the
table-guests of the Caliph Mutawakkil 'ala Allah, and
beatitude was ascribed to him. He became an eminent
scholar, a traditionist, and a man of many works. The
book has been transcribed from the autograph of its
author, which fact will also be mentioned at the end of
the work. It is an excellent book, the merit of which is
known only by the man who studies it with care."
In addition to all these references it should be noted
that the medical works of Tabari are frequently quoted
or referred to in books of a later date, under the name
44 Tabari." See Badr ad-Din Kalanisi's Karabadln (MS.
435 in the John Rylands Library; passim) and Nafis
Kirmani's Commentary on Najib ad-Dm Samarkandi's
Asbab wa 'Alamdt, where he is sometimes given his full
name: 4 Ali b. Zain Tabari (see fol. 402*, MS. 221 of the
John Rylands Library).
Finally we should record the fact that at the bottom
of the first page the titles of the following three chapters
of a work by the author are transcribed apparently from
an autograph : on the three denominations, the Melchites,
the Jacobites, and the Nestorians (p. 1 10) ; on the sen-
tences differently worded by the Apostles (p. 126); on
the ambiguous letters wherewith they have argued in
favour of their laws (p. 131). The work alluded to seems
to have been the Book of Replies to Christians mentioned
on pp. 101 and 107.
These are the original notices about the author, who
at the beginning of his Defence calls himself "freedman "
of the Caliph Mutawakkil This might more appro-
priately be referred to Mu'tasim (A.D. 833-841), in whose
time Maziar b. Jaran b. Wandahormiz of Tabaristan
was finally defeated by 'Abdallah b. Tahir, 1 and who, ac-
cording to Barhebraeus, freed at his death-bed eight
thousand slaves bought with his money. 2
That the writer was an eminent physician and moralist
is established by the above quotations. He was also the
nephew of the Syrian doctor, abu Zakkar Yahya b.
Nu'man, whom he mentions by name, and to whom he
attributes a polemical work lost in our days. 3 If abu
Zakkar is the same man as Zakariya' mentioned by Bar
Bahlul in his Syriac lexicon and identified by some
critics with abu Yahya al-Marwazi an identification
which to us seems very doubtful the year of his death
should be ascribed to the second quarter of the first half
of the ninth century, because the author of this Defence
speaks of him in terms which suggest that he had lived
shortly before the final edition of his book. Confusion
between physicians and moralists of the ninth century is
frequent in the works of a later date, and the time has
not yet come to speak of them in an irrefragable manner.
If we were allowed to add a remark to the identification
of Zakariya' with abu Yahya al-Marwazi, 4 we should say
that an identification with abu Zakariya Yahya b. Masu-
waih, 5 the physician of the Caliphs Ma'mun, Mu'tasim,
Wathik, and Mutawakkil, would be more in harmony
with the general course of events. On the one hand, the
name given to him by the author does not conflict with
lr rabari, 3, 2, 1268 seq. 2 Chron. Syr. p. 153 (Bedjan).
8 See p. 147. 4 Cf. Fihrist) p. 263, and Usaibi'ah i. pp. 234-235.
5 Cf. Fihrist, pp. 295-296, and Steinschneider in Z D M G, 1893, xlvii.
this surmise, and on the other hand, the year of his death
commonly believed to have been A.D. 854-855 would be in
consonance with the text of our Defence, written certainly
between 847 and 86 1, and probably in 855.
THE manuscript which contains the text of this Defence
is, so far as we are aware, unique. It is numbered 631 in
the Crawford collection of the John Rylands Library,
measures 210 x 127 mm. and consists of 73 leaves of
paper, with 19 lines to the page. The first leaf, which,
as stated above, had begun to fade, has been written
afresh by a sixteenth-century hand. If the scribe's state-
ment is correct and we have no reason to question it
the MS. is a transcript from the author's autograph.
This appears in the note translated above, which refers
us to the colophon at the end of the MS. Unfortunately,
this colophon cannot be deciphered in its totality. The
sentences which can be read with safety may be trans-
lated as follows :
11 The book was finished and glory and praise be to
God on the morning of Friday 4 Muharram of the year
six hundred and sixteen may God make good its be-
ginning ! Has copied it for himself the servant soliciting
the mercy and the forgiveness of the Almighty God :
'Abdul-Hamid b. Husain b. Bashik, who thanks the
Almighty God for His favours and blesses His Prophet,
our Master Muhammad, with his family and companions,
and gives them peace for ever."
The date A.H. 616 (A.D. 1219) is also found on the first
page, written by the sixteenth-century hand, while at the
bottom of the last page the following words are read in
a thirteenth-century hand : " I said This is the last work
copied by Jamal ud-Din, who died shortly after he had
finished it." Can this Jamal ud-Din be identified with the
above ' Abdul-Hamid ?
On folios i a, igb, and sgb, marginal notes dated
. ^ bear the name of an owner, a certain Musa
al-Maulawi. It is evidently this man who has added a
few . philological and historical notes on the narrow
margins of the book, and vocalised some difficult words.
These stray notes are the only data that we possess as to
the provenance of the MS., 1 which was apparently written
in Baghdad forty years before its sack by the hordes of
Hulaku. From the footnotes of pp. 97, 106, 131, etc., and
from some passages of the text, it would appear that the
MS. is a transcript from a first or rough draft made by the
author, but it is possible to admit that some of these
passages were marginal notes which have been misplaced
by the copyist
The translation given in the present volume preserves
the Arabic colouring of the original, but contains a few
explanatory words not found in the text, and safeguards
the interests of a general reader not necessarily an
Arabist. We have inserted some foot-notes to elucidate
difficult points, and have compared the historical and
traditional sayings reported by the author with the
following authorities :
Buk. The Sakth of Bukhari ; edition of Cairo, A.H.
1313, in nine volumes.
Hish. Ibn Hisham's Life of the Prophet; edition of
Cairo, A.H. 1332, by Tahtawi, in three
1 The words " In Egypt " are also clearly read at the top of the title-
page after a truncated line.
I.S. The Tabakat of Ibn Sa'd, edited at Leyden under
the direction of E. Sachau, in seven volumes.
Musi. The Sahlh of Muslim; edition of Cairo, A.H.
1327, in two volumes.
Musn. Musnad of Ahmad b. Hanbal ; edition of Cairo,
A.H. 1313, in six volumes.
Tab. The Annals of Tabari; edited at Leyden under
the direction of De Goeje, in fifteen volumes.
Taj. Taj al-Arus. Arabic dictionary, edition of Cairo,
in ten volumes.
Had we extended our comparisons to all the tradi-
tional books, we should have swollen the foot-notes
without appreciable advantage.
Other historians and theologians are quoted without
abbreviations and with full reference to the edition which
we have used.
It must not be inferred that our comparative apparatus
implies that the same tradition is registered verbatim by
the writers referred to in the foot-note. It is a well-known
fact that an identical tradition is sometimes so confusedly
worded by the authors of the ninth century that the
readers can scarcely recognise its extent and purpose, and
more especially the occasions and circumstances which
gave birth to it. As to the meagre historical value of all
this tardy Hadith, the reader should consult the recent
and well-known publications of Professors Margoliouth,
Goldziher, Wensinck, Snouck Hurgronje and Lammens,
in the light of which many lucubrations by ancient critics
have become antiquated.
With regard to the Biblical quotations found in the
book, since the author is mostly dependent only on the
Syriac Version, we have collated his translation with the
Peshitta. This collation is complete so far as the Penta-
teuch is concerned, but for the rest of the sacred Books
a note has been added only in case of a mistranslation or
About the author's sources nothing can be stated
with any degree of certitude. On the one hand, the
historical details in the section dealing with the Prophet
and the Orthodox Caliphs, are often preceded by the
formulae "It has come to our knowledge/* "It has been
related," which may equally point to oral traditions and
to written sources. On the other hand, there is no
reason for denying the probability that Tabari was in
the privileged position of having ready access to the
archives and the library of the Court in which, it is to be
presumed, the few Islamic biographical works (most of
which are now lost) preceding the present Defence, were
to be found. On p. 19 the author is speaking of works
written from the time of the appearance of Islam down
to his own day, and now and then he endeavours to
furnish important details of circumstantial evidences ; so
on p. 34 he states, in connection with a miracle of the
Prophet, that the descendants of the man to whom the
wolf spoke, were in his own time known by the epithet
"the children of the man to whom the wolf spoke. "
Concerning a Biblical Version quoted by the author
on pp. 78, 95, 98, and attributed by him to a certain Marcus
the tarjaman, we could find no definite traces. From the
Fihrist (pp. 23-24) we know that the Old and New Testa-
ments were translated into Arabic long before the tenth
Christian century, but we have no reason to identify
the problematic Marcus Ya'Kubi called Badawi, therein
mentioned as author of an Arabic book, with Marcus the
tarjaman spoken of in the present Defence. On p. 306
1 The reader will doubtless notice the differences in the numbers of the
chapters of the Bible used by the author. The numbers of the chapters
of his Bible are those formerly in use in the East Syrian (Nestorian)
the Fihrist mentions an earlier but still more problematic
On the authority of Cod. Vat. Arab. 13, of the end of
the eighth century, we may state that an Arabic Version
of the Gospels was in existence about A.D. 750 (cf. Scholz's
Krit. Reis. 118 seq., and Guidi's Ev. p. 8). Further, the
historian Michael the Syrian (edit. Chabot ii. p. 431)
attributes an Arabic translation of the Gospels to the
Christian Arabs assembled at the above public discussion
which took place in Syria in A.D. 639. This, if we
mistake not, is the oldest date to which any Christian
historian has ascribed the existence of an Arabic Version
of the Gospels, but great importance should not be at-
tached to a mere historical tradition without subsequent
data of a concrete and positive order. 1
We believe that the problem of " Marcus, the trans-
lator," may be satisfactorily solved in the following
manner : in the still unpublished repertory of the East
Syrian exegesis, entitled Gannath Bussame? a tradition
is registered to the effect that the Hebrew text of the
Old Testament was translated into the Syriac Peshitta
of our days by the disciple Mark, probably Mark the
evangelist himself. There is no necessity, therefore, to
resort to the hypothesis that the author was dependent
in his scriptural quotations upon a pre-existent Arabic
Version of the Bible. The Syriac statement of the
Gannath may be translated as follows :
"Some people report that Mark himself translated
the Old Testament from Hebrew into Syriac, and that
1 No account has been taken above of the tradition recorded by some
writers that Khadijah's relative, Warakah, had translated the Gospels into
Arabic in the time of the Prophet. We have likewise omitted as valueless
some other traditions transmitted in the late hadith, the authors of which
probably possessed less information than we do on the subject.
2 Page 260 of Syr. MS. 41 of the John Rylands Library.
he presented his translation to James, the brother of
our Lord, and to the Apostles, who appended their
approbation to it and gave it to the inhabitants of
The above tradition had evidently gained an unchal-
lenged credit in the Christian and Muslim circles of the
middle of the ninth century.
It is a pleasing duty to express here my sincerest
thanks to my colleague, Dr. H. Guppy, the chief librarian
of the John Rylands Library, for many good suggestions
and for his unfailing kindness in providing the necessary
research material to which all the merits of the present
work are to be attributed ; and to my friend, Prof. D. S.
Margoliouth of Oxford for help in the decipherment of
some Arabic words which had almost completely faded
JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY,
27 tk June, 1922.
I. PROLOGUE i
On the Different Forms of Stories and Common Agreements . . 6
Directions for the Verification of Stories 10
IV CHAPTER I.
The Prophet Called to the Unity of God, and to the same object
as that included in the Faith of Abraham and all the Prophets . 20
V. CHAPTER II.
On the Merit of his Prescriptions and his Laws .... 23
VI. CHAPTER III.
The Miracles of the Prophet which have been Denied and
Rejected by the People of the Book 30
VII. CHAPTER IV.
The Prophet Foretold Events Unknown to him, which were Realised
in his Days 37
VIII. CHAPTER V.
The Prophecies of the Prophet which were Realised after his Death . 40
IX. CHAPTER VI.
The Prophet was an Unlettered Man, and the Book which God
brought down to him and which He made him Recite is a Sign
of Prophetic Office 50
X. CHAPTER VII.
The Victory of the Prophet is a Mark of Prophetic Office . . 57
p Those who Called to his Religion and Witnessed the Truth of his
Cause were most Honest and Righteous Men . . . .61
Asceticism of Abu Bakr 61
Asceticism of 'Umar Ibnul-Khattab 65
Asceticism of Ali ibn Abu Talib 69
Asceticism of 'Umar ibn 'Abdul-'Aziz, and of 'Abdallah ibn 'Umar
Ibnul-Khattab, and of some other Pious Muslims ... 70
XVI. CHAPTER IX.
If the Prophet had not Appeared, the Prophecies of the Prophets
about Ishmael and about the Prophet who is the Last of the
Prophets, would have necessarily become without object . . 77
XVII. CHAPTER X.
The Prophecies of the Prophets about the Prophet . . . .85
The Prophecies of David about the Prophet .... 88
The Prophecies of Isaiah about the Prophet 93
The Prophecy of the Piophet Hosea about the Prophet . . . 117
The Prophecy of the Prophet Micah about the Prophet. . .118
The Prophecy of the Prophet Habakkuk about the Prophet . .119
The Prophecy of the Prophet Zephaniah about the Prophet . . 121
The Prophecy of the Prophet Zechariah about the Prophet, which
corroborates the Prophecy of Zephaniah 123
The Prophecy of the Prophet Jeremiah about the Prophet . .124
The Prophecy of the Prophet Ezekiel about the Prophet. . .128
Corollary . 129
The Prophecy of the Prophet Daniel about the Prophet . .133
The Prophecy of the Christ about the Prophet . . . .140
The Answer to those who have said that the " Refugees " and the
" Helpers " Embraced the Faith without any Sign . . .147
The Answer to those who have Blamed Islam in one of its Practices
or in one of its Prescriptions 153
The Answer to those who reprobate the fact that the Prophet Con-
tradicted Moses and Christ in Changing the Rules of the
Torah and the Gospel 158
The Answer to those who have pretended that no one but the Christ
mentioned the Resurrection 161
Conclusion ........... 162
IN THE NAME OF GOD THE COMPASSIONATE AND THE
MERCIFUL WHOSE ASSISTANCE WE SOLICIT.
SAYS 4 Ali son of Rabban Tabari, the freedman of the
Commander of the Faithful: Praise be to God for the
religion of Islam which whoso embraces shall be success-
ful, whoso maintains shall be rightly guided, whoso up-
holds shall be saved, and whoso impugns shall perish.
It is by it that the Creator has been made known ; it is
for it that nations are craving and souls have longed ; it
is by it that hope is fulfilled sooner or later, because it
is the living light and the crossing to the eternal abode of
perfect happiness in which there is no grief nor illusion.
God, the Most High, has made us of the number of the
people of the Sunnah, and has caused us to avoid false-
hood and the injuries it brings to its adherents ; God is
indeed to be praised and blessed, and there is no end to
His Kingdom, and nobody can change His words. He
is the Benefactor and the Wise who has revealed the
truth and enlightened it, and has created His servants,
sent His Apostle, His Beloved, and His Friend, to those
who were in doubt about Him, calling them to the eternal
victory and the shining light.
When the hour came and was near, God, the Most
High, sent our prophet, Muhammad may God bless
and save him to all creatures, as preacher, warner, and
illuminating lamp. 1 He proclaimed the order of his Lord,
and overawed his enemies into respect and fear by per-
suasion and dissuasion, and by imparting to them the
1 Kur. xxxiii. 45.
2 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
knowledge of a thorough reformation. He exhorted to
heaven and its beatitude, and prevented from being un-
mindful of hell and its fire. He conveyed on the part of
God the revelation which the angel Gabriel communicated
to him, and to which falsehood shall not come from before
it nor from behind it. 1 He did not set aside any truth
that the prophets had brought forth before him, but con-
firmed and corroborated it, and ordered belief in them
and praises in favour of the first and the last of them.
God said in His perspicuous book : "Say, We believe
in God, and what has been revealed to us, and what has
been revealed to Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and
Jacob, and the Tribes, and what was brought to Moses,
and Jesus, and what was brought unto the Prophets
from their Lord; we will not distinguish between any
one of them, and unto Him are we resigned." a
And He said: "The Apostle believed in what has
been sent down to him from his Lord, and the believers
all believed on God and His angels, and His Books, and
His Apostles. We make no difference between any of
His Apostles' 1 and the rest of the verse. 3 And about
those who associate gods with God, or give him a com-
panion, He said :
11 Say, He is God alone, God the Eternal ; He begets
not, and is not begotten, nor is there like unto Him any-
one/' 4 And He said :
11 Say, O ye people of the Book, come to a word laid
down plainly between us and you, that we will not serve
other than God, nor associate aught with Him, nor take
each other for lords rather than God. But if they turn
back then say, Bear witness that we are resigned." 6 And
He said :
"Is he who has laid down his foundation upon the
fear of God and His goodwill better, or he who has laid
a Kur. xli. 42, etc. 2 Kur. ii. 130.
3 Kur. ii. 285. 4 Kur. cxii. 1-4.
5 Kur. iii. 57.
his foundation upon a crumbling wall of sand, which
crumbles away with him into the fire of hell ? But God
guides not a people who do wrong." l
It is to these points that his proclamations were
directed, it is on them that he founded the edifice of his
call, and it is with them that he started the legislation of
his religion and the stipulations of his truth which the
polytheists among the Arabs, and the holders of the
inspired Book have denied. They have hidden his name
and changed his portrait found in the Books of their
prophets peace be with them. 2 I shall demonstrate this,
disclose its secret, and withdraw the veil from it, in order
that the reader may see it clearly and increase his con-
viction and his joy in the religion of Islam. In that I
shall tread a path more direct and advantageous than
that opened by some other writers of books on this
subject. Some of them have shortened, curtailed, and
contracted their argument, and have not explained it
satisfactorily ; some of them have argued in poetry against
the People of the Book } and in ignorance of their Books ;
and some of them have crammed the two faces of their
books with addresses to Muslims rather than polytheists,
then have put forth their proofs in a most elaborate and
difficult discourse. The adversary would be right if he
wished to say that these writers resembled a collector of
firewood by night, who indiscriminately picks up small
and big pieces, or a person carried away in a torrent,
who suddenly shouts out unpleasant or refined phrases ;
and that that with which they argued was not to de-
monstrate but to conceal, not to enlighten but to blind,
not to lessen difficulty but to increase it. He who writes
a book on this high, illuminating and enlightening subject
which involves a general utility to adherents to all re-
ligions, has to make it comprehensible and easy ; has to
1 Kur. ix. no.
2 Cf. Kur. vii. 1 56, and I. S. i. ii. 89, and i. i. 123 and passim in Buk.
4 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
discuss and compete with his adversary, and not to bully
and offend him ; he is to be intelligible, and not obscure ;
courteous, and not abusive ; he is to use indulgence, to
embellish [the tenor of his speech] l by making it lucid,
and to bring forth proofs and replies which, when ad-
dressed [to the adversary], * should cause him to abandon
his religious claim and his faith. If he does that to him,
he will ride on him, hit him with his arrow, and lead him
with his bridle.
I have aimed at this by the help of the Most High
God, and have made the meanings of my sentences easy,
in order that the reader may understand them, and not
be in doubt. I did not leave the members of the pro-
tected cults any argument, any difficult question, any
contentious point, that I have not mentioned and then
refuted and solved, by the succour and assistance of
God, and by the blessing of His Caliph, the Imam Ja'far
al-Mutawakkil 'ala-Allah, Commander of the Faithful
may God prolong his life who guided me and made me
profit by words heard from him. He is in earnest and
eager that such books should be spread and perpetuated
in order to strengthen the motives of credibility of the
Faith, to make its proofs triumph, and to convince of his
merit therein those who ignore it, and do not recognise
how God has singled out Islam and its followers in
his time and renewed for them His benefits; nor how,
through the gentleness of his administration, He has
made Himself felt by them, in multiplying, increasing,
and honouring them.
I have found that people who have contradicted Islam,
have done so for four reasons : firstly, because of doubts
about the history of the Prophet may God bless and
save him ; secondly, because of disdain and egregious
insolence; thirdly, because of tradition and custom;
fourthly, because of folly and stupidity. By my life, had
1 The words between brackets have completely disappeared from the
text and have only been guessed.
they discerned and grasped the truth of that history,
they would not have rejected it. And since they have
sought what is with God, by contradicting the com-
mand of God, we must needs decide to prove this history
to them, expel doubt from them, and explain to them
the origins and the subdivisions of stories, their causes
and their courses, and the way to discern their veracity
from their falsehood, and the reasons through which and
for which people have accepted their prophets and
responded to their missionaries. We shall next com-
pare our story with theirs, the men who transmitted
ours to us with those who handed down theirs to them ;
if the proofs that we have for believing in our Prophet
are the same as those they possess for believing in theirs,
they will have no excuse before God and before their
own conscience for disbelieving in our Prophet, though
believing in theirs, because if two opponents bring forth
the same evidence to establish certain claim, they have
both the same right to it, and what is due to one must
necessarily be due to the other.
ON THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF STORIES AND COMMON
EVERY story is of two kinds ; it is either true or false. It
has, also, three tenses; it is either past, or present, or
future. Certain stories may be sometimes true and
sometimes false; as if you would say: "Such and such
a man came or went ; " this may be true, and may also
be false. Some stories are true at all times, past and
future, gone or to come, because they are of the domain
of the clear, universal, and common fact ; as if one would
say, " The firmament has finished its diurnal rotation, or
it will finish it to-morrow ;" or if somebody says: "The
sun rose yesterday, or will rise next year ; " or if he says :
"The majority of the quadrupeds give milk in bringing
forth;" or, "The majority of the birds lay after they
have been covered, and hatch when they have laid. n
These and similar examples constitute a fact, true in its
totality, at all times, and are of the category of the first
and commonest agreement.
Some stories are wholly false, at all times, past or
future, as if one would say: "This has more light than
the sun, and is sweeter than honey ; This horse is swifter
than lightning, or more nimble than a tick ; " or if he
says : " All people gathered together so that none was
left ; " or, " Such and such a man is the best of men, and
is more learned than all of them ; has a precious object
worth everything ; his country is the most fertile of all
the countries created by God." This and similar kinds
of speech are wholly false, but they are used by the
majority of mankind in their figurative style, and are not
considered as wrong.
STORIES AND COMMON AGREEMENTS 7
After this first and commonest agreement that I have
mentioned, there is a second common agreement which
involves less universality and generality; such is the
story of Adam and Eve, and of their being the parents
of mankind. This is true for us in an indubitable manner,
because of the credence attributed to it by the majority
of mankind, and of the testimony borne by prophets to
its truth ; but it is considered as lie and falsehood by
many people, such as the Indians, the Sabeans, and the
After this second common agreement, there is a third
common agreement which involves less generality and
universality; such is the story of the Greeks, the In-
dians, and the Chinese; because although most people
who narrate it are from the low and common class, yet it
is true and indubitable, because of the constant agree-
ment and the numerous testimonies that it possesses.
After this third common agreement, there is a fourth
one which involves less generality and universality ; such
is the story of the appearance of Alexander, of the
Tababi'ah, and of the King Jam, and the like; it is ac-
cepted as true, because of the great number of people
who believe in it ; but people who believe in the story
of the above-mentioned countries, are more numerous
than those who believe in the story of the Tababi'ah and
A fifth common agreement is transmitted to one
another by people who adhere to it from a long period,
like the story of Buddhists, Zindlks, 1 and Magians ; it is
true and indubitable to them, but it is an unmistakable
falsity to us ; it began with juggleries and quibbles ; then
through tradition and heredity, habit and custom, it be-
came to them a religion.
That it is a characteristic note of stories to lay easily
hold upon mind and imagination is true and undeniable.
There are indeed stories which by their queerness please
1 Manichaeans, Atheists.
8 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
the hearer, whose face in listening to them blushes with
blood and whose eyes shed tears and blink fast from
immoderate laughter. Some of them expel the tears of
the hearer, render his body frigid, and cause the radiance
of his face to droop ; such is the news of unhappy and
disastrous events. Some of them excite the hearer to
munificence and make him generous to the one who is
asking for help and soliciting favour ; such is the case of
the glorification of generous people and the description
of praises and rewards which in exchange for their
liberality they receive in this world and in the world to
come. Some of them make the hearer avaricious, and
turn him away from generosity ; such is the news of a
man whose extravagance has reduced to poverty and
constrained to penury and misery. Some of them incite
him to anger and irritation, and make him stretch his
hand to strike and his tongue to disapprove. Some of
them kindle his passion, move him, and take possession
of his eager desires; such is the record of chaste and
attractive maidens and the bestowal of encomium on
their good qualities, their fragrance, the smoothness
of their touch, and the beauty of their smile ; especially
when this record is adorned with gems of melodies
which excite to emotion and infatuation.
Some of them incite people to rush into dreadful
things, and to put their life in danger, and that at an
interval of more than a thousand years after the death
of the first narrator; such is the case of what we are
told of the Buddhists oi India and of Magians, and the
like. Some of the Indians consume themselves with
different kinds of burning; some of them expose their
body to birds of prey, that they may eat it ; some of them
wander about like madmen in a waterless desert in order
that they may perish therein ; some of them throw them-
selves from a high mountain, and fall upon a tree of iron
set up with edged ramifications as sharp as swords
and spears out of zeal for facts handed down to them
STORIES AND COMMON AGREEMENTS 9
by some insolent liars who took them from some astute
I mentioned these facts in order that the reader may
know that he ought to avoid them and to flee from them
towards the harbours of wisdom and the ports of thought
and consideration. They are indeed most detrimental to
the souls, which they affect more swiftly than deadly
arrows and vehement passions. They enter the heart
from two doors the deceitfulness and delusiveness of
which are great, on account of fanciful and unreal con-
ceptions ; these are the two senses of hearing and vision,
by means of which the insinuations of historical events
are grasped. The sense of vision makes sometimes a
single object appear as two and a crooked object as
straight, like poles in rivers ; it makes sometimes a non-
existent object as existent, as in illusion and mirage.
As to hearing, sometimes one believes a murmuring of
the wind to be the thunder ; and a simple imitation of
a dog, a lion, and a ring-dove, to be the actual whining,
or roaring, or cooing.
DIRECTIONS FOR THE VERIFICATION OF STORIES.
I HAVE first spoken of the division of stories and of the
strange way in which they impress soul and body through
the accidents and happenings of the past. Now what
nations have agreed to in their argumentation and con-
sidered as thorough investigation and caution, is that
when someone is claiming a right, or telling a certain
story, if he brings two or three men endowed with sound
judgment and discrimination, truth is established and
suspicion and doubt are expelled from the judge and the
criminal. As to the history of the prophets, its issues
being such as to lead to heaven or to hell, we will not be
satisfied with two witnesses, nor with an oath, nor with
the avowal of a whole community, if account is not taken
of the testimonies of truth and the analogical evidences
that I shall set forth below.
We have already seen that communities great in
number, exalted in rank, and renowned in men of high
intellectual and mental acumen bear witness to all the
claims laid by many astute liars, as in the case of the
Zindlks and the Magians. This happens either through
tradition and habit, as we have shown, or through
stupidity and chicanery, or through constraint and com-
pulsion. This Zoroaster, the pseudo-prophet of the
Magians, did. He did not cease to wait repeatedly upon
King Bishtasaf until he reached him, and then he threw
the seed of his false suggestions into his breast ; next,
he did not cease to circumvent him by the mention of
God and His cult, and to turn round him on all sides
in order to remove his refractoriness, until he changed
VERIFICATION OF STORIES u
his belief and bent him to his opinions. Then he showed
him the Dualism which was in his mind, made good
before his eyes the intercourse with mothers and
daughters, and the eating of filthy and stinking muck ;
after that it was the monarch who constrained the in-
habitants of his kingdom to his belief.
Mani did similarly. He appeared at a time in which
there were generally two religions : Christianism and
Magianism. He deceived the Christians by telling them
that he was the messenger of the Christ peace be with
Him and circumvented the Magians by agreeing with
them to the two Principles.
After having seen that there is a common agreement
such as this, and another one such as that found in Islam,
it becomes evident that the acceptance of every common
agreement is wrong, and the rejection of every common
agreement is an error, and that the common agreement
is not sufficient by itself to prove the veracity of a pro-
phetic office, which, indeed, needs signs and marks of
truth, such as those God has accumulated in the case of
the Prophet may God bless and save him. He who in-
tends to verify historical events such as these or to redress
them, has, therefore, to investigate the story that comes to
his knowledge, and to examine its purpose and its defects ;
if he finds in it and with it something which would con-
tradict it and make it a falsity, no other demonstration is
wanted ; such is the fact of Musailamah, the liar. When
he claimed the prophetic office, he was asked about the
Prophet may God bless and save him and he answered
that he held him to be a speaker of truth and believed in
his prophetic office, but the Prophet may God bless and
save him having been asked about him, denounced him.
In the positive answer of Musailamah there was some-
thing to negative it; thus he gave the lie to himself, and
showed signs of contradiction and stupidity. It is for this
reason that learned men have said that when a forger and
false dogmatiser claims the prophetic office, God does not
12 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
give him any respite till from his own tongue there flows
the contradiction with which one might argue against
those who believed in him ; as God has done in the case
of Zoroaster, Mani and the like, who contradicted, gain-
said themselves, and became inconsistent
Zoroaster said that Hormiz name of their god
was eternal, compassionate, omniscient and omnipotent ;
then he ascribed to him the description used by ignorant
and stupid people, in saying that Satan was born of his
mind, and that God was unable to destroy him. Mani,
too, did similarly, in saying first that God was eternal,
omnipotent, incomparable, and in saying, next, that dark-
ness was eternal, and God would be overcome, and His
followers defeated and made captive. He who believes in
him who gives the lie to himself is in great error.
So also are the Christians ; having said at the be-
ginning of their profession of faith : 4< We believe in God,
creator of every thing visible and invisible," and then
adding that the Christ is creator and not created, contra-
diction appears in their utterances. And if we turn to
the Books of their faith, we find that they are not in
alignment with their belief, because all of them affirm that
God is creator and everything else is created. I have
demonstrated this point in the part that follows this,
where I have explained what concerns all Christian de-
nominations, and where I have set forth one hundred and
thirty arguments against them from the Books of the
prophets, apart from rational demonstrations, illustrative
examples, and illuminating analogies. In this I have for
aim their instruction, their guidance, and the fulfilment
of the duty of love and compassion that God has imposed
upon some creatures towards one another. As to what
concerns the Jews and others, I have treated it in the
fourth part in a short but significant manner.
The one interesting point which is treated here and
which ccntains refutations of a restricted dimension and
easy, is thcJ: of the news reaching an intelligent man of
VERIFICATION OF STORIES 13
sound judgment, who examines it carefully, and turns it
upside down thoroughly; if he finds in it and with it
something which would impair its genuineness and con-
tradict it, or if he finds it at variance with the religious
Books of the people, he will have no need of anything
else for its refutation, and the manifestation of its falsity
and groundlessness. When truth is quickly found, the
mind is relieved. This Mu'awiah did with a man from
Basrah who had asked him for two thousand palm-tree
trunks for the erection of his house. Mu'awiah questioned
him: "What are the dimensions of thy house?" The
man answered: "Two parasangs by two parasangs/'
Mu'awiah asked: "Is thy house in Basrah, or is Basrah
in thy house ?" The man answered: "My house is in
Basrah/' Mu'awiah then said: "All Basrah is less than
two parasangs. " In the story itself there was something
testifying to its falsity.
Another man said, while in 'Irak "We were at
Kumis, 1 in a garden situated on the western side of the
town, at a distance of three hundred parasangs. " The
man to whom this story was told said: "Therefore, we
are now in the middle of that garden, since there is less
than this distance between Kumis and 'Irak. 11
Fakhir said also the same in his book where he prefers
Kahtan to 'Adnan. After having mentioned that 'Adf,
son of Hatim, had a son, he added: " Where have you
another one like him? His father told him to drive
away strangers from his table, but the boy refused, say-
ing: 'Father, command this to other than me/" And
Fakhir said: "The boy is a generous man, son of a
generous father, who was himself son of a generous
father ; and is a magnanimous man, son of a magnanimous
father, who was himself son of a magnanimous father/ 1
Now I find that the fact itself contradicts his saying.
The father had ordered the boy to drive away people
from his table ; this the boy disliked and rejected ; the
1 In Tabaristan.
14 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
boy is, therefore, a generous man, son of an avaricious
father, and a magnanimous man, son of an ungenerous
Let the man who wishes to verify the history of the
prophets, and to inquire into it, act likewise; let him
examine the testimonies of truth and the analogical
evidences, which I have found abundantly existent in ten
different manners with regard to the Prophet may God
bless and save him in such a way that they are not due
to anyone but to Christ peace be with Him. I will
explain this point and set it forth clearly, in order that
the onlooker may know that he with whom these pre-
rogatives are found, the prophetic office must necessarily
be ascribed to him, and a strict accountability to God
rests with the man who disbelieves in him :
First, the Prophet may God bless and save him
called to One, Eternal, Omniscient, and Just God, whom
no one can overcome and hurt ; in that he was in con-
formity with all the prophets. Second, he was pious,
upright, sincere, and his laws and prescriptions are
praiseworthy. Third, he peace be with him wrought
clear miracles which only the prophets and the chosen
ones of God can work. Fourth, he prophesied about
events hidden from him, which took place during his life-
time. Fifth, he prophesied about many events concerning
this world and its kingdoms, which were realised after
his death. Sixth, he produced a book which by neces-
sity and by undeniable arguments is a sign of prophetic
office. Seventh, his victory over the nations is also by
necessity and by undeniable arguments a manifest sign
of prophetic office. Eighth, his missionaries who trans-
mitted his history are most honest and righteous men, to
whose like nobody can attribute lie and falsehood. Ninth,
he peace be with him is the last of the prophets, and
if he had not been sent, the prophecies of the prophets
about him and about Ishmael peace be with both of
them would have been vain. Tenth, the prophets
VERIFICATION OF STORIES 15
peace be with them prophesied about him long before
tiis appearance, and described his mission, his country,
his time, and the submission of nations to him, and of
kings to his nation.
These are clear prerogatives and sufficient testimonies,
which if somebody can show forth as due to him, his arrow
will not miss its butt, his truth will triumph, and will have
the right to be acknowledged ; and he who throws them
away and rejects them, his efforts would be fruitless, and
this world and that to come would be lost to him. I shall
treat this point succinctly, chapter by chapter, and I shall
show forth the testimonies of the prophets about it. I
shall not restrict myself to one prophet, but I shall appeal
to many of them ; nor shall I be satisfied with one pro-
phecy, but I shall bring forth more than sixty prophecies.
What I most desire is that God should turn my effort to
union and admonition, and to outlet from blindness, to
anyone who is not insolent and arrogant, nor obstinately
set in folly and perverseness.
If we ask especially the Christians why they dis-
believe in the Prophet peace be with him they would
say because of three reasons : first, because we do not see
that a prophet has prophesied about him prior to his
coming ; second, because we do not find in the Kur'an the
mention of a miracle or a prophecy ascribed to the man
who produced it ; third, because the Christ has told us
that no prophet will rise after Him. These are their
strongest objections, and I will refute them, by the help
of God. If I am able to prove that the contrary of what
they assert is true, and that for our belief in prophets
there is no such necessary condition as that they mention,
they will have no more excuse before God and their
conscience, and those who adduce such pleas and cling
to them are in the path of unbelief and perdition.
The answer to their saying that no prophet has
prophesied about the Prophet, and that the prophetic
office of the prophets is not true and acceptable except
16 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
when it is preceded by other prophecies, because he who
believes in a prophet who has no previous prophecy about
him would be in error and unbelief, is this : let them tell us
who prophesied about the prophet Moses himself may
God bless him or about David, or about Isaiah, or about
Jeremiah, who are considered by them as the greatest of
the prophets peace be with them ; and since there is no
previous prophecy about them, he who believes in them
would, therefore, contradict truth for falsehood, and thus
incur the wrath of the Lord of the worlds. The answer
to their saying that in the Kur'an there is no mention of
a miracle wrought by the Prophet may God bless and
save him and that he who has no record in his book of
a sign or a miracle has no reason to be acknowledged, is
this : let them show us the miracle wrought by David
and recorded in his Psalter ; if they do not find it for us,
why and for what reason have they called him a prophet,
while no prophet has previously prophesied about him,
and there is no record of a miracle in his Book ?
From what I have explained it has become evident
that, in the process of the verification of the history of
prophets, there is no need of a previous prophecy about
them, nor of a mention in their books of their miracles
or the outward signs of their claims. There are indeed
prophets who, as stated above, have in their Books the
record of a miracle and a manifest prophecy, but about
whom no previous prophet has prophesied ; and no one
has for that denied their claim ; such is the case of Moses,
Daniel, Isaiah, and the like peace be with them. There
are also prophets on whom God has bestowed all these
prerogatives ; such is the case of the Christ peace be
with Him who has wrought wonderful miracles, fore-
told hidden and unknown things, and has previous pro-
phecies about Him prior to His appearance. There are
prophets who have miracles recorded in their Books,
but who did not prophesy ; such is the case of Elisha,
who gave life to two dead men, but has no direct pro-
VERIFICATION OF STORIES 17
phecy. Some prophets, such as Ezekiel and Hosea and
others, did not work any miracle, and they prophesied ;
but their prophecy having been realised long after their
death, people who saw them and acknowledged them had
no reason for their belief in them, in the absence of a
miracle shown by them to their contemporaries. There
are some prophets who have in their Books neither
miracle nor prophecy, nor convincing stories, and are
counted among the prophets ; such is the case of Malachi,
Haggai, and Nahum, whose Books of prophecies does
not exceed three or four pages, for each one of them ;
such is, also, the case of Miriam the prophetess, Moses's
sister, and of Hannah the prophetess, who have neither
Book, nor prophecy, nor miracle, nor sign, and they have
counted them among the prophets. O my cousins, why
and for what reason have you called these prophets ?
This being the condition of the Christians, why do
they disbelieve in the prophetic office of the Prophet
peace be with him who actually possesses the above
mentioned prerogatives, some of which are perpetuated
in the Kur'an, and some in the Tradition, which is of
equal value to the Kur'an with the sole difference
that those which are contained in the Kur'an afford
stronger and clearer argument, and more cogent
prophecy. How can they reject them with the explana-
tion that I shall give of the prophecies of the pious
prophets about him, and with the allusions of the ma-
jority of them to his prophetic office, and to his time
may the peace and the blessings of God be with all of
them. If you say that you have rejected and avoided the
Prophet may God bless and save him because there is
no prophet after the Christ, I will make it clear from
your own Books that the man who whispered this into
your ears and made it flow from your tongues was not an
adviser but a deceiver to you, not reliable but suspect.
To this effect, it is written in the eleventh chapter of
the Book of the Acts, which contains the Epistles of the
1 8 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Apostles, that "In those days, prophets came from
Jerusalem, and one of them, called Agabus, stood up and
prophesied to them that in those countries there will be
famine and great dearth. " l It is said in this same chapter,
that " In the church of Antioch, there were prophets and
teachers, as Barnabas, and Simon, and Lucius of the
town of Cyrene and Manael and Saul/' 2 All these five
prophets, according to what is recorded, were in Antioch.
Some of the women prophetesses are also mentioned. It
is said in the nineteenth chapter of this book that " Philip
the interpreter had four daughters prophetesses." 3 Luke
said, too, in the book of the Acts, that the group going to
Antioch " Went to the house 4 of Judas and Silas, because
they also were prophets. 5
The Christians are therefore short of evidence for their
claim, and their saying is incoherent, and their argu-
ments have been refuted and overthrown ; it has become
evident that after the Christ there were people whom
they have called Apostles and Prophets ; such is the case
of Paul himself.
I shall now, by the help and assistance of God, ex-
plain the ten prerogatives which I have set forth. I shall
present in each chapter what is perpetuated in the
Kur'an, as a reproach against those who pretend that
there is no mention of a miracle in it. I wish the
reader of this book to realise its merit and the excell-
ence of its value, and to know that those born in the
religion of Islam and firmly attached to it, who have pre-
fusely dealt with this subject, did not reach what I have
attained; he who has a doubt in his breast, let him
compare my book, the prophecies, the convincing and
peremptory proofs which it contains, the riddles and the
1 Acts xi. 28. 2 Acts xiii. i. 8 Acts xxi. 9.
4 The translator has misunderstood the Syriac particle dibaith^ which
means partisans^ companions^ and has rendered it literally by the word
1 Acts xv. 32.
VERIFICATION OF STORIES 19
intricacies of the adversaries which I have carefully ex-
amined, with all that other writers have written, since the
appearance of Islam down to our own time. This is due
to the help and assistance of God, and to the blessings of
the Commander of the Faithful may God strengthen him
and to the obligations which God imposes through him
on his friends and freedmen. It is he may God prolong
his life who called me to this work, guided me in it, and
convinced me that on account of it I shall be entitled to
a great reward from God and a good memory from
man. Before I became Muslim I was neglectful, led
astray, unaware of the right direction, and groping my
way far from what later was disclosed to me. Thanks
and blessings be to God who has lifted up the veil from
my sight, opened the locks for me, and saved me from the
darkness of error !
THE PROPHETPEACE BE WITH HIM CALLED TO THE
UNITY OF GOD, AND TO THE SAME OBJECT AS THAT
INCLUDED IN THE FAITH OF ABRAHAM AND ALL
THE PROPHETSPEACE BE WITH THEM.
The most trustworthy witness to this is the Kur'an,
which shows that the Prophet peace be with him
called only to the God of Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac and
Jacob, to the unity of God, and to what pious prophets
had proclaimed and sound minds had demonstrated.
Among other things, God the Most High, said in the
11 Say, He is God alone ; God the Eternal ; He begets
not and is not begotten, nor is there like unto Him any-
one." l And He said :
"God bears witness that there is no God but He, and
the angels and those possessed of knowledge, standing
up for justice. There is no God but He, the mighty, the
wise." 2 And He said:
"Say, O God, Lord of the Kingdom, Thou givest the
kingdom to whomsoever Thou pleasest, and strippest
kingdom from whomsoever Thou pleasest; Thou
ures t whom Thou pleasest, and abasest whom Thou
please> s t ; in Thy hand is good. Verily, Thou art mighty
overall^" a And He said :
" Hov> v can ye disbelieve in God, when ye were dead
and He mi ^j e y OU a ii ve> anc j then He will take your life
and then m^ke you alive again, and then to Him will ye
'Kiu. -^ I4 Kur. iii. 16.
8 Kur. iii. 25.
NATURE OF THE PROPHETS CALL 21
return." 1 About the excellence of God, His mercy and
His justice, He said :
" Whoso does right it is for his soul, and whoso does
evil, it is against it, for thy Lord is not unjust towards
His servants." 2 And He said :
"And he who gains a good action, we will increase
good for him thereby; verily, God is forgiving and grate-
ful." 3 And He said:
"And he who does the weight of an atom of good
shall see it, and he who does the weight of an atom of
evil shall see it." 4 And He said :
11 What befalls thee of good it is from God, and what
befalls thee of bad it is from thyself." 5 And He said:
11 God will not require of the soul save its capacity ; it
shall have what it has earned, and it shall owe what has
been earned from it" 6 In exalting the grace of God and
His compassion for His servants, He said :
14 Verily, God would not wrong by the weight of an
atom ; and if it is a good work, He will double it, and
bring from Himself a mighty reward." 7 And He said :
"We did not wrong them, but they wronged them-
selves." 8 And He said :
" And when they swerved, God made their hearts to
swerve ; for God guides not the people who work
abomination." 9 And He said :
11 That is because they believed and then disbelieved,
wherefore is a stamp set on their hearts so that they do
not understand." 10 And He said :
" He who brings a good work shall have ten like it ;
but he who brings a bad work shall be recompensed
only with the like thereof, and they shall not be
wronged." 11 And He said :
1 ur. ii. 26. 2 ur. xli. 46.
8 Kur. xlii. 22. 4 Kur. xcix. 7-8.
6 Kur. iv. 81. 8 Kur. ii. 286.
7 Kur. iv. 44. 8 Kur. xi. 103.
9 Kur. Ixi. 5. 10 Kur. Ixiii. 3.
11 Kur. vi. 161.
22 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
41 How will it be when we have gathered them to-
gether for a day whereof there is no doubt, when each
soul shall be paid what it has earned." 1
This is the faith of Adam, of Noah, of Abraham, and
of all the prophets and righteous men may God's bles-
sings be with them ; and the adversaries do not doubt
and suspect it.
1 Kur. iii. 24.
ON THE MERIT OF HIS PRESCRIPTIONS AND HIS LAWS.
As to the dictations and prescriptions of his religion,
they are : love of God the Most High ; love of parents ;
strengthening of the ties of relationship ; generosity
with one's possessions ; devotion to gratuitous benefac-
tions ; asceticism ; fasting ; prayer ; general alms ; legal
alms ; forgiveness of the culprit ; fulfilment of en-
gagements ; avoidance of deceit and falsehood ; getting
rid of wrongs by the kindliest way ; prohibition of
intoxication, immorality, adultery, and usury ; ordinances
for spreading safety and justice ; striking off the head of
recalcitrant unbelievers ; and other points without which
there is no firm religion and world. Among other
things is the following saying of the Most High God :
" For those who expend in alms, in prosperity and
adversity, for those who repress their rage, and those
who pardon men; God loves the kind." 1 And this
other saying :
14 Those who expend their wealth by night and day,
secretly and openly, they shall have their reward with
their Lord. No fear shall come on them, nor shall they
grieve/ 7 2 And He said :
" Take to pardon and order what is kind, and shun
the ignorant ; and if an incitement from the devil incites
you, then seek refuge in God ; verily, He both hears and
knows." 3 And He said :
41 And twist not thy cheek proudly, nor walk in the
land haughtily ; verily, God loves not every arrogant
1 Kur. iii. 128. a Kur. ii. 275. 3 Kur. vii. 198-199.
24 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
boaster; but be moderate in thy walk, and lower thy
voice; verily, the most disagreeable of voices is the
voice of asses. " 1 And He said :
11 He will not catch you up for a casual word in your
oaths, but He will catch you up for what your hearts
have earned. " 2 And He said :
41 Say, I have no power over myself for harm or for
profit, save what God will." 3 And He said :
" God desires for you what is easy, and desires not
for you what is difficult/ 1 4 And He said :
"Verily, men resigned and women resigned, and
believing men and believing women, and devout men
and devout women, and truthful men and truthful
women, and patient men and patient women, and humble
men and humble women, and almsgiving men and alms-
giving women, and fasting men and fasting women, and
men who guard their private parts and women who
guard their private parts, and men who remember God
much and women who remember Him, God has pre-
pared for them forgiveness and a mighty reward." 5 And
He said :
" Verily, God bids you do justice and good, and give
to kindred their due, and He forbids you to sin, and do
wrong, and oppress ; He admonishes you, haply ye may
be mindful. " 6 And He said :
11 And obey not any mean swearer, a back-biter, a
walker about with slander ; a forbidder of good ; a
transgressor, a sinner ; rude, and base-born, too. " 7
God did not leave a question which would edify
and reform His servants, nor a counsel which would
tend to please Him, without having spoken of it
What shows the merit of the divine call of the Pro-
phet peace be with him is that he extended his pro-
clamation to all mankind, without sending a special and
1 Kur. xxxi. 17-18. 2 Kur. ii. 225.
8 Kur. x. 50. 4 Kur. ii. 181.
5 Kur. xxxiii. 35. 8 Kur. xvi. 92.
7 Kur. Ixviii. 10-13.
MERIT OF HIS LAWS 25
particular invitation to some people to the exclusion of
others, as the rest of the prophets had done, except the
Christ peace be with Him. Indeed he generalised his
call and promised pardon and heaven to all. Other
prophets struck blindly with the sword those who were
round them, and squandered their fortune, without cal-
ling, forgiving, edifying and warning, as the Prophet
may God bless and save him was commanded to do.
As to the asceticism of the Prophet may God bless
and save him his austerity, and his disregard of the
allurements and deceitfulness of this world, I will relate
some facts from which it will be inferred that from a
man of his devotion and temperance no one conceives
deceit and falsehood. It has been related of him peace
be with him that it was only after much pain and
anxiety that he ate sufficiently bread or meat. 1 When
he may God bless and save him gave his daughter
Fatimah for marriage to 'Ali may God be pleased with
both of them the only dowry that he gave her was a
bed woven with twisted palm-leaves, a pillow of skin
stuffed with palm-tree fibres, an earthen pot, a water-
skin, and a basket containing some raisins and dates. 2
1 Ayeshah may God be pleased with her said : " We
used to stay forty days without firelight/* Having been
asked on what they lived, she answered : " On water
and dates." 3
Fatimah would grind herself the grains for flour ; her
hands became sorely hurt, and traces of the handle of the
mill were seen in them ; 4 she complained of that to the
Prophet may God bless and save him and asked him
for a servant to serve her ; and he answered her : " My
little daughter, I have not in my house a place to contain
all the Muslim women of whom you are one ; therefore re-
member and thank God frequently/ 1 He peace be with
l Cf. I. S. i., ii., 114-119. MusL ii. 531.
3 Musn. i. 84, 93, 104, 108.
8 I. S. i. ii. 114-119. Buk. iii. 167 ; viii. 107. MusL ii. 531.
4 Musn. i 96, 1 06, 123, 136.
26 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
him would fasten tightly a stone on his stomach out of
hunger, eat sitting on the ground, put, when sleeping,
his hand under his head as a pillow, and wear his
mantle and say : " I am a servant, I eat and sleep like a
servant." 1 He, too may God bless and save him
would produce from his weeping, while in prayer, a
noise resembling that of the boiling of a cooking-pot. 2
Among the traditions referring to the magnanimity
of his conduct peace be with him and to the gravity
of his character, is that the angel Gabriel peace be with
him came to him and said : "O Muhammad, I brought
thee the magnanimity of conduct of this world and of the
world to come : thou shouldst join with the man who
broke with thee, give to the man who deprived thee, and
forgive the man who wronged thee." And he said :
" Visit the sick, give food to the hungry, and take away
the chains from the captives/' 3 He may God bless and
save him forbade tittle-tattle, frequent questions, and
extravagance. 4 In commanding moderation and content
in one's condition, he peace be with him said : "The
Holy Spirit has whispered in my mind 5 that a person
will not die until he has completely provided for his
livelihood." And he said : " He who visits the sick is
upon the palm-trees of Paradise." 6 And he peace be
with him said : " I am not for games and pleasures,
and games and pleasures are not for me." 7
And he said in praise of asceticism : " He who accumu-
lates wealth will come in the day of judgment having
over his eyes a scald-headed snake with two black
specks." 8 And he peace be with him said : " Fear
the Fire by giving alms, although it be but one half of a
1 Cf. Buk. v. 120, viii. 105. Musi. ii. 193. Jahiz, Avares^ 240, 241,
242 (edit. Van Vloten). I. S. i. ii. 114, 159.
2 Lane's Lexicon, i. 52. 8 Buk. iv. 71 ; vii. 130.
4 Cf. Buk. passim in Rikak. B See Lane, iii. 1 188.
6 Musi. ii. 383. For this tradition see Taj. vi. 81.
7 See Lane, iii. 862. 8 Cf. Taj. v. 393.
MERIT OF HIS LAWS 27
date." 1 And he said: "I stood in the door of heaven,
and I saw that those who entered through it were
generally the poor, while the rich were cast in prison/' 2
He, too peace be with him would say : " God has
mercy on the man who owes his safety to his silence, or
speaks when speech is necessary for success." It is
related also of him peace be with him that he never
compelled anyone to give anything ; that he never asked
anything from anyone, except for the sake of God ; and
that no one ever asked him anything without his giving
it to him for the sake of God. 3
What the Most High God has prescribed and laid
down to his people in the matter of prayers, ablutions,
and preliminary preparations dealing with washing after
excretion, cleansing the teeth, rinsing the mouth, and
other purifications ; attendance to public prayer with
humble devotion, silence, keeping of ranks, quiet, reitera-
tion of genuflexion and prostration, and utterance of
words at each genuflexion and prostration, in order that
their knowledge might extend to everybody, little or
grown up, male slave or female slave, all this is as
something due to the dignity and the majesty of the
Creator, when His servant is present before Him and
asking from Him.
It is related also of him peace be with him that one
day, on the occasion of a temporary interruption of his
revelations, he told some people who were present with
him : " How can revelations not be interrupted when
you do not trim your nails, nor clip your moustache, nor
cleanse your finger-joints." 4 He, too peace be with
him would say : " No human speech fits prayer, which
is only for glorification, praise, and reading of the
Kur'an." This was against the deed of those who came
1 Musi. i. 375. Hish. ii. 93. Buk. iv. 207 ; viii. 122, 126. Musn. i.
2 Cf. Buk. iv. 122 ; viii. 105, 124. See also Musn. i. 224, 355 ; ii. 175.
3 Cf. I.S. i., ii. 92. Musi. ii. 290. 4 Musn. i. 243.
28 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
to it when stinking with foul smell or polluted, and those
who interrupted their prayers with talks, games, spitting,
It is related also of the Prophet may God bless and
save him that, speaking on behalf of the Most High
God, he said : " I have prepared for my servants what
eye has not seen, ear has not heard, and the heart of a
man has not conceived ; except that with which I have
made them acquainted." l
Among the things which make his religion easy and
free from restraint is what God has ordered, through
him, about the meal at daybreak, the shortening of prayer
for the sick and the travellers, and his saying that the
three days following the Day of Sacrifice should be for
eating, drinking, and making use of marriage.
One of the marks of the merit of his religion, and of
the reasonableness of the prescriptions of the Kur'an, is
that we find that the Torah which is in the hands of the
People of the Book says : " Everyone who kills should be
killed." Now Moses himself peace be with him and
David, and other prophets as well as kings of the
Children of Israel, have killed many people, but they
have not deserved to be killed. The Kur'an limits and
defines that in saying : " And whoso kills a believer pur-
posely, his reward is hell, to dwell therein for aye." 2 It
has been related of him peace be with him that he
said : " He who slays a person with whom he is on terms
of peace, will not perceive the odour of Paradise." 3 This
is a restricted, limited, corrected, and polished order.
Moses and Jesus peace be with them said : " Every
claim is settled by two or three witnesses ; " so the Jews
and the Christians say. But it happens that the two
witnesses are wicked and liars ; God, therefore, said
1 1 Cor. ii. 9 ; Is. Ixiv. 4. This well-known tradition of Bukhari is
well catalogued in Taj ix. 380.
2 Kur. iv. 95.
3 Buk. iv. 103 ; ix. 14. See Lane, iii. 1178.
MERIT OF HIS LAWS 29
through the Prophet may God bless and save him
" And bring as witnesses two men of equity from among
you." 1 In this He limited and enlightened the point at
issue with a short, significant, important, and clear
Moses peace be with him ordered the children of
Israel to curse openly, by the tongue of the nation, any-
one who transgresses or neglects something from the
laws and the prescriptions of the Torah ; but it happens
that the one who had transgressed some of them, or had
trespassed and committed shortcomings against them,
repents and shows penitence, and is no more worthy of
curse. Therefore, the Kur'an says : " Those who when
they do a crime, or wrong themselves, remember God
and ask forgiveness for their sins and who forgives sins
save God ? and do not persevere in what they did, the
while they know ; these have their reward : pardon from
their Lord, and gardens beneath which rivers flow,
dwelling therein for aye ; for pleasant is the reward of
those who act like this/' 2 These are messages and
points which demonstrate that the man who laid them
down was sound, steadfast, pious, devout, and was not a
a plagiarist, an appropriator of others' rights, nor one
making light of things and lacking gravity.
1 Kur. Ixv. 2. 2 Kur. iii. 129-130.
THE MIRACLES OF THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND
SAVE HIM WHICH HAVE BEEN DENIED AND RE-
JECTED BY THE PEOPLE OF THE BOOK.
I WILL only relate the miracles of the Prophet peace be
with him which afford ground for argument with equit-
able people. I will begin the subject with what is found
in the Kur'an, in order that the adversary may not say
that if the Prophet may God bless and save him had
wrought a miracle, it would have been mentioned in it,
in the same manner as the miracles of Moses and Jesus
peace be with them are recorded in the Torah and
Among his miracles which took place in his time
peace be with him and to which the Kur'an bears
witness, is that he was transferred in a single night from
the Sacred Mosque to the Remote Mosque ; l and this is
the saying of the Most High God :
" Celebrated be the praises of Him who took His
servant by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Remote
Mosque, the precinct of which we have blessed, to show
him of our signs." 2
The Arabs rejected this, saying: "When and how
could he cover in a single night the distance which takes
two months to go and return ? " Then, Abu Bakr may
God be pleased with him went to him and asked him
about it. And he peace be with him said : " Yes ; and
1 The Commentators believe that these terms refer to the Ka'bah of
Maccah and the temple of Jerusalem respectively.
2 Kur, xvii. I. See the Commentators.
MIRACLES OF THE PROPHET 31
I encountered the caravan of such and such a tribe in
such and such a valley ; one of their camels had bolted
away, and I directed them to it. I met, too, with the
caravan of such and such a tribe, while they were asleep ;
I drank water from one of their vessels ; their caravan is
now coming preceded by a dusky camel carrying two
sacks, one black and the other black and white/' People
rushed towards the caravan route, and behold, the
caravan was coming preceded by a dusky camel; and
they could not find an objection to his miracle. 1 By my
life, it is a clear and sufficient miracle, recorded in the
Kur'an and accepted by the unanimity of the Muslims.
Among the Prophet's miracles which God has men-
tioned in His Book, is that when the polytheists harmed
him and sneered at him, He said to him: " Therefore,
publish what thou art bidden, and turn aside from the
idolaters; verily, we are enough for thee against the
scoffers." 2 This, too, is found in the Kur'an, and there are
not two men who hold discordant views about it and about
its interpretation ; it is that five persons of high standing
among the polytheists were sneering at him and harming
him. Gabriel peace be with him came and said to
him : " When they make the circuit of the holy house, ask
what thou wilt from God, and I will do it against them as
punishment." One of them, Lahab son of Abu Lahab,
met him in the circuit, and the Prophet may God bless
and save him said : " Let God's dog eat thee ; " and a lion
devoured him. Then, Walid ibn Mughirah met him, and
the Prophet may God bless and save him made a sign
to a wound that he had in the sole of his foot, and it
became recrudescent and killed him. Then, Aswad ibn
4 Abd Yaghuth met him, and the Prophet made a sign to
his belly; and he became dropsical and died. Then,
Aswad ibn Muttalib met him, and he threw a leaf on his
face, saying : " My God, blind him, and cause his son to
die ; " and all this happened to him. Then 'As ibn Wa'il
1 Hish. ii. 7. 2 ur. xv. 94-95.
32 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
met him, and he made a sign to the hollow of his foot,
and a thorn entered into it and killed him. Then, Harith
ibn Talatilah met him, and he made a sign to him, and he
burst out with pus and perished. 1 It is in this way that
the Prophet may God bless and save him was delivered
from the Scoffers, who were men of high standing and
chiefs of the tribe.
It has been related on the authority of Aminah, the
mother of the Prophet may God bless and save him
that when he fell from the womb she saw light coming
out with him, and that he fell on all fours, his face and
sight being directed towards heaven. 2
Among his resplendent miracles noticed by all who
saw him in the Day of Badr, is that he threw dust on the
face of the polytheists and said : " Confusion seize their
faces ! " 3 ; and they fled and were killed.
Anas ibn Malik may God be pleased with him has
reported that he heard the cry of a man saying "O
Apostle of God! the houses have been destroyed by
the violence of the rain;" and he peace be with
him said: "Let it fall round us and not upon us."
And Anas said : " I saw with my eyes the clouds mov-
ing away from the town." 4 He, too may God bless
and save him said once to the polytheists who were
present with him: "If any of you can pronounce the
name of his father or of his brother, I am a liar;"
and none of them was able to pronounce it. Two
handfuls of dates were brought to him in the Day of the
Dttch } and he ordered that they should be laid before
him. His herald cried to the army, and everybody
ate and was satisfied. In the Day of Badr, the sword of
1 See the Commentators Zamakhshari and Baidawi on Kur. xv. 94,
possibly quoting Hish. ii. 13.
2 Cf. I.S. i. i. 63, 97. Hish. i. 155. Tab. I, 2, 968-9.
3 See the historians of Badr Lit. "Faces have become ugly." See
also Musn. i. 368.
4 I.S. i. ii. .117. Hish. i. 255. Buk. ii. 34.
MIRACLES OF THE PROPHET 33
'Ukkashah ibn Mihsan was broken, and he said: "O
Prophet of God, my sword is broken ; " and the Prophet
peace be with him took the stem of a plant used as
firewood and gave it to him, and said to him : " Shake
it;" and 'Ukkashah shook it, and it became a sword,
with which he went forth and fought ; and later, it re-
mained with him all the time. 1 And he, too peace be
with him took a pebble, which he moved with his hand,
and it praised God ; then he put it in the hand of Abu
Bakr, and it praised ; then he put it in the hand of 'Umar,
and then in the hand of 'Uthman, and it praised in their
It is reported on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas may
God have mercy upon him that a man on a foray took
the nestlings of a bird. The bird came to the Apostle of
God may God bless and save him and flapped its wings
near his head, then it fell in his hands. The Prophet
peace be with him said : " Who took the nestlings of this
bird? Fetch them and give them back to it." They
found them with a Muslim, and gave them back to it.
It has been related that a camel knelt on his hands,
then bellowed. The Prophet may God bless and save
him called its owner and said : " This camel has com-
plained and told me that it was with thee since its youth ;
and thou workedst with it ; but now that it was old thou
wishedst to kill it." The man answered: "It has told
the truth, O Prophet of God, because I am not feeding
It has been related, too, that Banu Ghifar wished to
slaughter a calf, which spoke and said: "O Children of
Ghifar ! a happy event ! a crier is crying in Maccah ' There
is no God but Allah ; ' " and they left it and went to
Maccah, where they found that the Prophet may God
bless and save him had appeared ; and they believed in
1 I.S. i. i. 125. Hish. ii. 225. 2 Cf. I.S. i. i. 124.
3 Cf. I.S. i. i. 102-103. Hish. i. 201.
34 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
It has been related that a wolf made a raid on some
sheep ; the shepherds said one to another : " Are you not
amazed at this wolf? " The wolf spoke and said : " You
are more to be amazed at than I ; a prophet has appeared
in Maccah calling to God, and you do not answer him." 1
All these are well-knbwn facts among all Muslims, who
do not deny anything from them because they did not
take place behind closed doors. What corroborates the
miracle of the wolf is that the children of the man to
whom the wolf spoke are called down to our own day
" The children of the man to whom the wolf spoke ; " they
transmit the fact among themselves, and they are traced
back to it, in order that it may not be forgotten, and that
no one may have a reason to discredit it.
And he peace be with him invoked curses upon
the Arabs, and rain was withheld from them, and the
land was affected with drought. It has been told, too,
of him peace be with him that he apprised Abu Sufyan
of a secret affair which had taken place between him and
his wife Hind. Abu Sufyan was amazed at that, and
said to himself: "She has disclosed my secret; I will
surely pound her hand on her foot." But the Prophet
may God bless and save him said : " Do not commit
any injustice against Hind ; she has not published any
secret." Then Abu Sufyan said : "I had suspected her
and was perplexed about her ; but since thou hast told
me what I was "telling to myself, I ascertained that she is
innocent of what I suspected her."
Among the noted miracles of the Prophet peace be
with him is the fact handed down by Anas ibn Malik,
who said: "My mother took dates mixed with butter
and curd and sent them to the Prophet may God bless
and save him praying him to eat from them. The
Prophet may God bless and save him stood up and
said to his friends: 'Let us start/ When my mother
noticed the crowd, she said ' O Apostle of God, I have
^f. I.S. i. i. 114. Buk. iv. 182.
MIRACLES OF THE PROPHET 35
only prepared something sufficient for thy food, thine
alone. '" And Anas said "The Prophet may God bless
and save him called for divine blessing, and said to me
4 Get in the crowd in companies of ten ; ' and they ate
their fill and went out; and we, too, ate, and were
It has been related on the authority of Ya'la ibn
Umayyah 2 that the Prophet may God bless and save
him being once on a journey, wished to make his ablu-
tions, and said to me "Go to those two trees and tell
them that the Apostle of God may God bless and save
him commands them to draw near each other.' 1 And
the two trees came furrowing the ground until they
reached each other ; the Apostle of God may God bless
and save him made then his ablutions between them,
and ordered them to go back to their place ; and they
went 3 It has been related, too, that a Jew invited him
to dinner, and offered him a poisoned sheep ; but he
peace be with him said : " This sheep tells me that it is
poisoned." The Jew avowed that, and said : "I wished
to test thee and said to myself ( If he is a prophet, the
matter will not be hidden from him, but if he is an im-
postor, he will eat of it, and I will rid people of him/ " 4
It has been related on the authority of Jabir ibn
'Abdallah al-Ansari, who said : " We set off on a journey
with the Prophet may God bless and save him and we
were very thirsty. We hurried towards him, and there
was with him a drinking vessel in which there was
water. He put his hand in it, and caused the water tc
jet out of his fingers, as if there were springs. W^
!Cf. Buk. (passim). Musi. ii. 192. Cf. also I. S. i. i. 117, and i. ii
2 A notable man in the province of Yaman, and according to Tad. ( i
3, 1253), the first Chronologist.
8 Cf. I.S. i. i. 112 ; MusL in Sirah*
M.S. i. i. 113-114; ii. ii. 6-7; iv. 104. Buk. iv. 104; vii. 157
MusL ii. 246. Cf. Musn. i. 397.
36 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
drank and quenched our thirst, and made our ablutions ;
and we were four hundred men." l
This is enough for this work ; had we intended to
exhaust the subject, the book would have been too
bulky; but in what has been written there is remedy
for the man whom God wishes to guide and to save.
Some of it is taken from the material found in the Kur'an
itself, and some of it is taken from the men from whom
the Muslims took the Kur'an, and who are considered as
reliable in all that is handed down to the nation from
them. They resemble in that the Apostles of the Christ
peace be with Him who transmitted to the Christians
portions of the Gospel, and handed down to them the
history of the Christ. Therefore, if those men are
reliable and worthy of confidence in transmitting his
history, they are not to be suspected in all that they
have related of him ; but if they are not reliable in that
point, they are to be suspected in all that they have
transmitted, and are deceivers, first of themselves, and
then of all men.
-- ^ . Must. ii. 278-279, and 543. Musn. i. 251, 324,
402. I.S. i. i. 117-118, 121. Cf. Tab. i, 4, 1703.
THE PROPHETPEACE BE WITH HIM FORETOLD EVENTS
UNKNOWN TO HIM, WHICH WERE REALISED IN HIS
WE will begin this chapter also with what is found in
the Kur'an, in order to strengthen our argument and
destroy the excuses of the adversaries. The Most High
God said to His Apostle may God bless and save him
"Ye shall verily enter the Sacred Mosque, if God
please, in safety with shaven heads and cut hair, ye shall
not fear." 1 And they entered it when he was still alive,
as God had said. And He said: "And when those
who misbelieve were crafty with thee to detain thee a
prisoner, or kill thee, or drive thee forth ; they were
crafty, but God was crafty too, for God is the best of
crafty ones." 2 And it happened as God had said, and
they wished to be crafty with him, but God thwarted
their craftiness, and foiled their stratagem.
And God said : " O Ye who believe ! remember God's
favours towards you when hosts came to you, and we
sent against them a wind and hosts that ye could not
see." 3 With them God struck the infidels in the face;
and it happened as He had said. And He said: "We
will cast dread into the hearts of those who misbelieve ;
strike off their necks then, and strike off from them
every finger tip/' 4 And it happened as God had told
him, and he did to them what he was ordered to do.
And He said : " Dost thou not look on those who were
1 Kur. xiviii. 27. 2 Kur. viii. 30.
8 Kur. xxxiii. 9. 4 Kur. viii. 12.
38 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
hypocritical, saying to their brethren, who misbelieved
amongst the People of the Book, ' If ye be driven forth,
we will go forth with you; and we will never obey
anyone concerning you ; and if ye be fought against we
will help you/ But God bears witness that they are
surely liars. If they be driven forth, these will not go
forth with them; and if they be fought against, these
will not help them ; or if they do help them, they will
turn their backs in flight ; then shall they not be helped/' l
It happened as God had said to his Prophet may God
bless and save him because those men have been driven
forth, and these their brethren did not go forth with
them ; and they have been fought against, and they did
not help them.
What can a man say against these miracles, while the
Kur'an mentions them and the Muslim community bears
witness to their veracity, and all its members subscribe
to their authenticity, and men and women converse about
them ? If, while they are contained in the Kur'an, it is
allowed to consider them as false and revile them, we
will not believe the adversaries who say that the Torah
and the Gospel do not contain falsehood to which the eye-
witnesses of events had deliberately shut their eyes. If
then this cannot be said about the Torah and the Gospel
and their contemporaries, it is not allowed with regard
to the Kur'an and its holders. About the breakers of
faith from the polytheists of Kuraish, the Most High
God said : " Fight against them ! God will torment them
by your hands, and disgrace them, and aid you against
them, and heal the breasts of a people who believe ; " 2
and it happened as He said.
Among authentic stories is the one transmitted by
Sa'd ibn 'Ubadah as-Sa'idi, who said : " We were on a
foray with the Prophet may God bless and save him
and with us there was a man who would kill every poly-
theist against whom he came to fight. We mentioned
1 Kur. lix. 1 1. 2 Kur. ix. 14.
THE PROPHET FORETOLD EVENTS 39
this to the Prophet may God bless and save him and
he said, " Is he not from the people of the fire ? " And
Sa ( d added " I did not cease to follow him, in order to
see the end of his story. He was wounded, and con-
sidering death too slow, he put his sword on his navel,
and pressed himself against it until he killed himself/' 1
It is related, too, of him peace be with him that he
said to Khalid ibn al-Walid and his friends when he sent
them against Ukaidir of Dumat Al-Jandal : " You will
find him on the roof of his house, directing cows," and
they found him in that state. It has been related, too,
of him may God bless and save him that his she-
camel went astray, and he began to ask for her. The
hypocrites said : "This Muhammad claims to know the
secrets of heaven, and he does not know where his she-
camel is." He knew upon what they were communing
with themselves, and said : " I know but what my Lord
tells me ; and he has told me that my she-camel is in
such and such a valley, her head entangled in a tree."
They sought for her and found her in such a state. 2
It has been related of him may God bless and save
him that one day he gathered the people and announced
to them the death of Najashi, King of the Abyssinians,
prayed for him, and said four times " God is most great" 3
In that very day there came the news of his death, while
the sea was separating him from the land of the Abys-
sinians, and Maccah was not a highway like the highways
of East and West. 4
1 Buk. iv. 74 ; viii. 136. 2 Hish. iii. 335.
3 Cf. Buk. v. 56.
4 The Prophet having apparently announced the death of Najashi
while at Madlnah and not at Maccah (Tab. 1,4, 1720) the author here
wishes only to convey the idea that the shortest way from Abyssinia to the
former was through the latter.
THE PROPHECIES OF THE PROPHET PEACE BE WITH
HIM WHICH WERE REALISED AFTER HIS DEATH.
WE will begin this chapter also with the prophecies of
the Prophet may God bless and save him which are
mentioned in the Kur'an, in order that no argument may
be left to the people of incredulity and obstinacy upon
which to lean, nor a hold at which they may clutch.
Among other sayings is the following of the Most High
God : u Have we not expanded for thee thy breast ? and
set down from thee thy load which galled thy back ? and
exalted for thee thy renown ? " l That is to say, his
name shall be invoked and mentioned after that of God
in every sermon, enchantment, discussion, marriage,
prayer, and the like.
Among other sayings is the following of the Most
High God : " When there comes God's help and victory,
and thou shalt see men enter into God's religion by
troops ; then celebrate the praises of thy Lord, and ask
forgiveness of Him, He is relentant."' 2 In this Surah he
foretold the nearness of his death to his nation, and what
was to take place after him, on the subject of people enter-
ing by troops and in masses into his religion ; and this
was realised The adversaries look at it after a long time,
and they do not deny it And the Most High God said :
11 A. L. M. The Greeks are overcome in the nighest parts
of the land ; but after being overcome they shall over-
come in a few years." 3 And it happened as he said, in
a war between Chosrau and Caesar, and it became evi-
1 Kur xciv. 1-4. 3 Jur. ex. 1-3. 8 Kur. xxx. 1-2.
THE PROPHET FORETOLD FUTURE EVENTS 41
dent to the Arabs that his revelation was true. This
was incessantly spoken of by them, by their children and
their women, in their houses, and they were expecting
it and seeking information concerning it until it was
noticed by one and all.
And He said, too : " God promises those of you who
believe and do right that He will give them the succes-
sion in the earth as He gave the succession to those
before them, and He will establish for them their religion
which He has chosen for them, and give them after their
fear, safety in exchange/' 1 This is also a prophecy
which has been fulfilled and realised, and no one can
find a way to deny it, because God has given to the
Muslims the succession of the earth, established for them
their religion, and changed their fear into safety. What
miracle and what prophecy are truer and clearer than
And He said, too : " He it is who sent His Apostle
with guidance and the religion of truth, to make it pre-
vail over every other religion, averse although idolaters
may be." 2 God and His Apostle peace be with him
proved right, and his religion has prevailed over every
other religion, and the adherents of every religion have
submitted to him. And He said, too, to the Arabs who
had lingered behind : " Ye shall be called out against a
people endowed with vehement valour, and shall fight
them, or they shall become Muslims. And if ye obey,
God will give you a good reward ; but if ye turn your
backs, as ye turned your backs before, He will torment
you with grievous woe. 1 ' 3
These were men who had fallen away from the Pro-
phet may God bless and save him to whom he foretold
that they would fight against the Greeks and the Per-
sians, unless these become Muslims. This happened as
it is in the Kur'an, and the onlookers bear witness to its
veracity. What can the adversaries say about these
1 Kur. xxiv. 54. 2 Kur. ix. 33. 3 Kur. xlviii. 16.
42 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
prophecies, and what answers and arguments can they
find against them when they are realised, fulfilled, and
spread manifestly East and West ? And if a scoffer holds
them in contempt, or is not satisfied with them, and is
resolved to refute and contradict them, he will not des-
troy except his own soul, will not irritate except his own
Lord, will not change except his own fate, and will not
be able to find for us in his own Books except what is
Among indubitable traditions it is related that the
Prophet may God bless and save him said : " I have
five names : I am Muhammad; and Ahmad ; and
Effacing, by means of which God effaces infidelity ; and
Gatherer, who will gather people ; and Final, that is to
say, the last of the Prophets." 1 His saying peace be
with him was fulfilled, and by him God has closed pro-
phecies, and blotted out infidelity, that is to say, He
weakened and lessened it, in effacing it from the middle
and the heart of the earth, and in leaving a shadow of it
in its ends and borders. It has been related, too, that he
was on a mountain, which shook under him ; he said to
it : " Be quiet ; there are only on thee a Prophet, a Just
man, and a Martyr ; " 2 there were with him Abu Bakr,
for whose sake he named "Just man," and 'Umar and
'Uthman, who were martyred after him. And he peace
be with him would say to his friends : " I have the
precedence over you to the pool ; " 3 and God took him
And he peace be with him said to Fatimah may
God be pleased with her in the illness of which he died '
" Thou wilt follow me more quickly than any other of my
1 I.S. i. i. 65. Buk. iv. 194. Mu^L \\. 301. Tab. i, 4, 1788.
2 Musn. i. 187, 1 88, 189.
3 Buk. viii. 132. Musi. ii. 283. " The Pool of the Apostle " is that
of which the Prophet's people will be given to drink on the day of Resur-
rection (Taj. v. 23). See also Musn. i. 257, 402, 406, 439, 453, 455. Its
description is in ii. 162.
THE PROPHET FORETOLD FUTURE EVENTS 43
relatives." 1 And from his relatives she was the first to
die after him. And he said to 'Ali, son of Abu Talib
may God be pleased with him in pointing to his head
and to his beard: "This will be tinged with that." 2
Afterwards, 'Ali was affected with a dangerous illness,
and his relatives said to him " We are anxious about thee
from this illness/ 1 And he said "I do not fear it, be-
cause the Apostle of God may God bless and save him
said to me : ' This will be tinged with that/ " And this,
too, was realised, because 'Ali recovered from that illness
and was struck on his head with a sword, and killed.
And he peace be with him said to 'Uthman: "God
will clothe thee with a shirt ; and the people will force
thee to take it off; but do not yield." When 'Uthman
was besieged, and the people bade him take off the cali-
phate, he said to them : " The Prophet may God bless
and save him told me so and so, and for that I shall not
do what you are saying;" and he was killed. 3 And he
may God bless and save him said to 'Ammar ibn
Yasir: "A rebellious band will kill thee." 4 And he was
killed in a battle between 'Ali and Mu'awiah. And
Mu'awiah did not deny this tradition, but said : " It was
not my troops who killed him ; but the man who deceived
him and made him go forth to fight, he killed him."
And he too peace be with him said to Zubair ibn
'Awwam : " Thou shall fight against 'Ali, and in that thou
shall be unjust towards him." He did so, and 'Ali re-
proached him. And he may God bless and save him
said to his wife 'Ayeshah may God be pleased with her
"The dogs of Haw'ab will bark against thee." When
she went to Basrah, she heard barking in her night
journey ; and she asked about the place, and she was
answered : " It is the watering-place called Haw'ab." She
remembered his saying peace be with him and she
said " Verily to God we belong, and verily unto Him we
1 Musi ii. 341. I.S. ii. ii. 40. *Musn. i. 102.
3 Cf. I.S. iii. i. 46. Taj. iv. 428. 4 Cf. Mum. ii. 164.
44 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
return, 1 ' l and repented that she had travelled there. 2 And
he peace be with him used to say about Hasan son of
'Ali peace be with both of them "This my son is a
Sayyid and God will reconcile through him two Muslim
And he peace be with him said : " The earth has
been collected together for me, and I saw its Eastern and
Western parts, and the empire of my nation will reach
the spot from which it has been collected together for
me." 4 He also seized a pickaxe, in the Day of the Ditch,
and with it he struck a flint which had defied those who
were digging ; a spark came out of it, and he peace be
with him said "In this spark I saw the cities of Chosrau."
Then he struck another blow, and another spark came out;
and he said " In it I saw the cities of Caesar. Verily God
will give them to my nation after me." 5 It has been told of
him peace be with him that at the end of a journey he
would worship and perform two rak'ahs? and repair to
Fatimah may God be pleased with her. He went to
her after he left the Ditch ; and she began to weep and to
kiss his mouth ; and he said to her : " O Fatimah, why
art thou weeping ?" And she said "O Apostle of God,
I see thee shabby, weary, and clothed in worn out gar-
ments." And he said "O Fatimah, God has revealed to
thy father that it is He who places dignity or lowliness in
every house, be it of clay or of hair ; and He has revealed
to me that my lowliness will be of short duration. 7
It has been related that Anas ibn Malik said : " I was in
a walled garden with the Prophet may God bless and
save him and I heard a knock at the door ; and he said
to me 'O Anas, rise and open the door to the comer,
1 A sentence of the Kurgan (ii. 151) proverbial on the occasion of a
3 Tad. i, 6, 3109. 3 Buk. ix. 62. 4 Taj al 'Arus (s.v.).
5 Cf. Tab. i, 3, 1467-9, and Hish. ii. 73-
6 Genuflexions at prayer.
7 Lit. until it reaches where night has reached.
THE PROPHET FORETOLD FUTURE EVENTS 45
and declare to him that he will go to heaven, and tell
him that he will be set over my community after me/
And I went, and lo ! I was face to face with Abu Bakr
may God be pleased with him and I declared to him
what I had heard, and I went in. Then another man
knocked at the door, and he said ' Rise and open the
door to him, and tell him that he will go to heaven, and
that he will be set over my community after Abu Bakr/
I opened the door, and lo ! I was with 'Umar may God
be pleased with him and I did what I was commanded
to do. Then I heard another knock at the door, and he
peace be with him said to me ' Rise and open the
door to the new comer, and tell him that he will go to
heaven, and that he will govern the community after
'Umar;' and lo! I was with 'Uthman may God be
pleased with him/' 1
It has been related of him peace be with him that
he used to say : " The death of this generation shall not
take place before you have seen people whose faces are
like two-fold shields." 2 He, too may God bless and save
him would say : " Which is the most sterile of your
countries ? " And they answered : " Khurasan/' And he
said : " It will be a source of blessings for you after me/'
None of the sons of this 'Abbasid dynasty and of others
ignores that Abu Muslim 3 started without any doubt that
victory and Caliphate were due to this 'Abbasid house.
When he approached Hirah, he sent a messenger to ask
after the members of the family of Abul- 'Abbas who were
there. When the messenger saw them, he questioned
them " Which of you is the son of 'Harithiyah ? " 4 and
1 Buk. v. 9, 14 ; ix. 60. Musi. ii. 321. Cf. Musn. ii. 165.
2 Buk. iv. 44, 206. Musi. ii. 505. Musn. \. 4, 7.
3 The Khurasanian ringleader of the revolution which overthrew the
Umayyad dynasty in favour of the 'Abbasids.
4 A feminine gentilic from Harith, the tribe of the mother of Abul-
4 Abbas Sajfah of the following note. Her father was called 'Ubaidallah
b. 'Abdallah, b. 'Abdal-Maddan, b. Dayyan al-Harithi. (See Tab. iii. 88,
46 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
this was Abul-'Abbas, 1 the Commander of the Faithful
may God forgive his sins because it was told in the
Tradition that the first one who would become Caliph
would be the son of Harithiyah ; this they did not sus-
pect What is more wonderful is that the Umayyads did
not doubt that the Caliphate would go to its owners from
the members of this house, and for that they were killing
them and tracking them under every stone. Meantime
the inhabitants of Khurasan were sending messengers
to them, when they were at Sharat, to strengthen their
hope. They did not question the justice of their cause, and
when those of them who have been killed were killed,
victory dawned in the time decreed by God in traditions
handed down to us.
It has come to our knowledge that Abul-'Abbas re-
ceived the news of the conquest of Yaman and of Sind 2
in the same day ; and he showed a great sorrow. His
household said to him : "O Commander of the Faithful!
it is a day of joy ; what does this sorrow mean? " And
he said to them "Have you then forgotten the tradition
transmitted from the Prophet may God bless and save
him that the man who would conquer Yaman and Sind
in one day, his death would be near." He had fever on
that very day, and died some days later.
It has been related of the Prophet may God bless and
save him that he wrote two letters begun with the men-
tion of his name, one to Chosrau and the other to Caesar,
and called them to Islam. 3 As to Caesar, he put his mis-
sive on the pillow, and wrote him an answer couched in
civil language. As to Chosrau, he tore up his missive and
^bul-'Abbas surnamed Saffah^ the first 'Abbasid Caliph (A.D. 750-
2 Sind was conquered by the Muslims in the time of Hajjaj (Yakut,
Geogr. Diet. iii. 166). Evidently the author refers here to the conquest of
Sind and Yaman to the 'Abbasid cause (cf. Tad. iii. i. 80) ; about the inva-
sions of Sind see BeladhorPs Futuh^ pp. 431-446 (edit. Goeje).
3 Cf. Buk. i. 22 ; iv. 46 ; vi. 9. Musn. i. 243, 263, 305. Must.
ii. 81. Tab. i, 3, 1571, etc.
THE PROPHET FORETOLD FUTURE EVENTS 47
wrote to Phiruz the Dailamite, 1 when still in Yaman,
bidding him repair to the Prophet may God bless and
save him seize him, and slay him. And the Prophet said :
41 my God ! tear up his kingdom ; " and his kingdom was
torn up, as you see. And Phiruz went and informed the
Prophet may God bless and save him of the order he
had received about him. The Prophet may God bless
and save him said to him : " My Lord has informed me
that thy lord has been slain. Do not touch me until the
news is verified by thee." The news reached them, and
Phiruz became Muslim on account of what he had seen and
heard ; and he called to Islam the Persians who were in
Yaman, and they became Muslims. And when 'Ansi, the
liar, appeared in Yaman claiming the prophetic office, the
Prophet may God bless and save him wrote to Phiruz
ordering him to kill him. And Phiruz entered his house
when he was asleep, bent back his neck, pounded it, and
killed him. He, too peace be with him said, "The
Caliphate will not cease to be in the family of Kuraish.""
And the Prophet may God bless and save him said
to 'Abbas, his uncle, -who had brought to him his young
son 'Abdallah may the grace of God be with both of
them u This boy will be the most learned of my nation
in religion, and the best versed in the interpretation of
the Revelation," He prayed over him, spat in his mouth,
and said : " O my God, make him versed in religion, and
teach him Interpretation/' And he became as he was
told, and he was for that called the Habr?
Among the evidences of the favours which God con-
fers on the Prophet peace be with him and on all who
believe in him, is the fact, transmitted by noted and well-
known traditions, of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab asking water
1 A governor established by the Sasanian Kings of Persia (Tab. i, 4,
I ?63 ; 1857-1867. Hish. (i. 67-68) ascribes a similar incident to Badhan,
about whom see Tab. i, 4, 1851-1853.
2 Buk. iv. 1 88 ; ix. 68. Musi. ii. 107.
8 Buk. v. 29, and in <Ilm. Cf. Musi. ii. 351. " Habr" means priest^
doctor. See also Musn. i. 266, 269, 315, 335, 359.
48 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
from Heaven in the name of 'Abbas son of 'Abdul-
Muttalib may God be pleased with both of them in
the Year of Drought 1 He took him by the hand, went
forth, and said : " O my God ! we come to Thee, asking
water from Thee through the intercession of the uncle of
Thy Prophet." They did not discontinue until a cloud
mounted up, which sent a copious rain. 2
And he used to say to his companions ; " By the One
who has sent me with truth, although evening finds you
humble, you will shine so as to become stars by means
of which people will be guided, and so that it will be
said : So-and-so has related that he heard the Apostle
of God may God bless and save him say such and such
a thing ; " and you see that this happened as he said.
It has been related, too, that 'Ikrimah, son of Abu
Jahl, when still idolater, killed in battle a man from the
Helpers; and the Prophet may God bless and save
him smiled. A man from the Helpers said to him :
" Didst thou smile, O Apostle of God, because one of
thy kin killed one of us ? " He answered : "No ; but I
smiled because both of them have the same rank in
heaven. " And 'Ikrimah became Muslim afterwards, and
was slain in the action of Ajnadain in the country of the
Greeks. 3 And he peace be with him said to 'Adi, son
of Hatim : " O 'Adi, become Muslim, and thou wilt be
safe. O 'Adi, I think that what impedes thee from this
is the poverty which thou findest in those who are round
me, and the conspiracy through which men have become
one band against us. Hast thou seen Hirah ? " 'Ad!
said " No." And he said : "The time is near when from
there a woman will travel on a camel without escort to
make the circuit of the holy house ; and verily, the
1 Or : of Ashes. In the I7th or i8th year of the Flight there was no
rain for a long time, and men and cattle perished in great number.
(Tad. i, 5, 257oetseq.)
2 Cf. I.S. iii. i. 232.
3 This battle is described by Tab. 3, 4, 2306-7, etc.
THE PROPHET FORETOLD FUTURE EVENTS 49
treasures of Chosrau, son of Hormiz, will be open to us,
three times. " l And 'Adi added : " I saw myself all that
the Prophet peace be with him had foretold."
And Abu Bakr may God be pleased with him said,
when the Arabs turned from Islam 2 and he sent troops
against them: "The Apostle of God may God bless
and save him has promised the Muslims victory and
conquest from God, and God will make his religion
prevail over every other religion ; and God will not fail
in His promise." God has, indeed, confirmed and
realised the prediction and the saying of the Prophet
may God bless and save him and every doubt has been
1 Buk. iv. 207.
2 This defection is well described by Tab. i, 4 1871 seqq.
THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE HIM WAS
AN UNLETTERED MAN, AND THE BOOK WHICH GOD
BROUGHT DOWN TO HIM AND WHICH HE MADE HIM
RECITE IS A SIGN OF PROPHETIC OFFICE.
AMONG the miracles of the Prophet may God bless and
save him is the Kur'an. It has, indeed, become a
miracle of meanings, which no writer of books on this
subject has tried to explain without recognising his
incompetence and renouncing his discourse and his
claim to such an explanation. When I was a Christian, I
did not cease to say in accordance with an uncle of mine
who was one of the learned and eloquent men among
Christians, that rhetoric was not a sign of prophetic
office on account of its being common to all nations.
But when I waived tradition and customs, and broke
with the promptings of habit and education, and ex-
amined the meanings of the Kur'an, then I found that
the question was as its holders believed it to be. I have
never met with a book written by an Arab, or a Persian,
or an Indian, or a Greek, which contained, like the
Kur'an, unity, praise, and glorification of the Most High
God ; belief in His Apostles and Prophets ; incitement to
good and permanent works ; injunction for good things,
and prohibition of evil things ; exhortation to heaven and
restraining from hell. Who has ever written, since the
creation of the world, a book with such prerogatives and
qualities, with such influence, sweetness and charm upon
the heart, and with such attraction, felicity, and success,
while its producer, the man to whom it was revealed,
DIVINE ORIGIN OF THE KUR'AN 51
was unlettered, not even knowing how to write, and
having no eloquence whatever ? This is without doubt
and hesitation a mark of prophetic office.
Moreover, I found that all books worthy of everlasting
fame do not fail to deal either with the world and its
inhabitants, or with religion. As to the books of litera-
ture, philosophy, and medicine, their aim and purpose are
not like ours, and are not counted among books of
revelation and religion. As to the books dealing with
religion, the first one to name, and the first one which
came into existence, is the Torah, which is in the hands
of the People of the Book. Now we find that it deals
commonly with the genealogies of the Children of Israel,
their exodus from Egypt, their halts and their depar-
tures, and the name of the places in which they halted ;
and it contains, too, high laws and prescriptions which
dazzle the mind, and which the intellectual capacity and
power of men are unable to comprehend. What the
Kur'an contains from these historical events is as a
reminiscence of the days of the favours of God, as edifica-
tion, warning, and admonition. As to the Gospel which
is in the hands of the Christians, the greater part of it is
the history of the Christ, His birth and His life ; and
with that it contains good maxims of morality, remark-
able advices, sublime wisdom, and excellent parables, in
which, however, there are only short and small portions
of laws, prescriptions, and history. As to the Book of
the Psalms, it contains historical events, praises, and
hymns of high beauty and sublime character, but it does
not contain any laws and prescriptions.
As to the Books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and other pro-
phets, the greater part of them deals with curses to the
Children of Israel, with the announcement of the igno-
miny reserved to them, with withholding favours from
them, inflicting punishments and chastisements on them,
and with other kinds of evils.
The wicked Zindiks have used abuses and invectives
52 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
against these Books, saying : "The Wise and the Merciful
could not have revealed such things, nor have ordered
the prescriptions dealing with the sprinkling of blood on
the altar, and on the garment of the priests and the
imams ; with the burning of bones ; with the obscenities
and garbage mentioned therein ; with persistency in
anger and wrath ; with the order to desert the houses
when their walls shine with white, because this would
be a leprosy affecting these houses ; l with the command
to a group of Israelities to march one against another
with unsheathed swords, and to fight with endurance
amongst themselves, until they had perished in striking
and beating one another. 2 The Jewish people put this
into action and did not rebel, and they agreed without
flinching to endanger their life and perish. People who
do these things with promptitude are obedient and not
rebellious, friends and not enemies ; and friendly and
obedient people do not deserve to be ordered to kill and
to destroy one another."
Then Moses peace be with him ordered that they
should go to two mountains close to each other, and that
six tribes from them should ascend one mountain, and
six tribes another mountain, and that some men from
them 3 should read, one by one, the prescriptions and
the laws of the Torah and say : " He who transgresses
these prescriptions, or neglects them, or loses something
from them, is cursed. " The tribes who were on the
other mountain answered with Amen to those who were
cursing in a loud voice. 4 Moses did not leave any of
them without curses, and even instigated them to curse
their successors after them ; and they did it promptly,
obediently, and without opposition. In that they were
led to discomfiture before they were fixed in their homes,
and to a general curse before they could perceive the
odour of victory and happiness.
1 Cf. Levit xiv. 33 seq. 2 Exod. xxxii. 27-28.
3 The Levites. 4 Cf. Deut. xxvii. 1 1 seq.
DIVINE ORIGIN OF THE KUR'AN 53
Of the same kind is the saying of the Prophet
Ezekiel, that God told him to shave his head and his
beard with a sharp and keen sword. 1 Similar is the
saying of the Prophet Hosea, that God commanded
him to marry an adulteress woman, who brought him
forth two children; and ordered him to call one of
them / will not have mercy and the other They are
not my partisans, "in order that the Children of Israel
might know that I will not have mercy on them,
and will not consider them as friends and partisans." 2
And Hosea, too, said on behalf of God about the Jews,
that their mother was an adulteress, and that they were
born of an illegitimate union. 3 One of the prophets also
said to the Jews, on behalf of God, that their mother was
pleased with the males of Egypt. 4 And after a sermon
to the Children of Israel, Isaiah said that he who told this
was the Lord whose light is in Zion and furnace in
Not a single letter resembling such things is found in
the Kur'an, which is interwoven with the Unity of God,
hymns, praises, prescriptions, laws, history, promises,
threats, persuasion, and dissuasion ; with prophecies and
announcements concerning good things congruous to the
majesty of God, His wisdom, and His might; with the
consolidation of hope in His forgiveness, His mercy, and
His acceptance of repentance ; and with other questions
by which souls are encouraged, and hopes fearlessly con-
firmed. God, indeed, says in it : " Verily God is forgiving
and merciful ; and who forgives sins except God ? " 6
And He says, too, "O my servants who have been ex-
travagant against their own souls, be not in despair of
the mercy of God ; verily, God forgives sins, all of them ;
verily, He is forgiving and merciful/' 7
1 Ezek. v. i. 2 Hos. i. 2 seq.
8 Cf. ibid. 4 Cf. Ezek. xvi. 26.
5 Isa, xxxi. 9. 6 Kur. iii. 129.
7 Kur. xxxix. 54.
54 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
It is right to state that this book is a sign of prophetic
office, because there has not been a book similar to it
since the beginning of the world, and since the time
wherein people began to write on parchment. More-
over, it possesses other striking prerogatives full of light
and mystery; viz. other books, and especially those
written by philosophers, have been written by literary
and scientific men, after meditation and deep thought,
and after they had been brought up in towns, heard facts,
and conversed with learned men. But the Prophet
may God bless and save him was not like them, but he
was an unlettered Abtahi 1 who had not learned from
an Egyptian, or a Greek, or an Indian, or a Persian, and
had not frequented the sittings of literary men in search
of literature or for reading books; and he produced a
book which has astonished the linguists, the eloquent
and ready speakers, and subjugated to him the necks of
the Arab nation. He said on behalf of the Most High
God: "Say 'Bring ten Surahs like it devised; and call
upon whom ye can beside God, if ye do tell the truth.'" 2
And he said : "Then bring a Surah like it, and call your
witnesses other than God, if ye tell truth." 3 There was
no one left in the nation to murmur and to speak, but all
befriended him, submitted, and yielded.
The learned men among the protected cults object
that the Prophet peace be with him should have been
an unlettered man, because God does not spare His
prophets the knowledge of writing, this knowledge being
the best He could bestow upon them, and the least of
His secrets and miracles He could reveal to them. The
answer to this objection is that the Most High God has
qualified each one of them with what He pleased Some
of them were excellent speakers, such as David ; and
some of them were lispers and stammerers, such as
1 A gentilic of Abtah, a clan of the tribe of Kuraish (Hish. i. 163) ; and
one of the names of the Prophet.
2 Kur. xi. 1 6. 8 Kur. 11.21.
DIVINE ORIGIN OF THE KUR'AN 55
Moses. Some of them gave life to the dead and rent
asunder the sea, and made springs of water jet out of
rocks, to the exclusion of others. Some of them were
literary men and writers, such as Solomon; and some
were unlettered, such as David, who said in his Psalter :
" Because I did not know how to write j" 1 this is not a
dishonour to him, as it is not a dishonour to Christ not
to have been a dexterous spearer, 2 a skilled archer, a
surveyor, an architect. And as it is not considered a
dishonour for Moses not to have had fluency and elo-
quence of speech, or not to have walked on the air, or
not to have healed a blind man and a leper, and as it is
not considered a dishonour for David and others peace
be with them that God did not take them up to heaven,
in the way that He did for others, it is not permissible
to say that God was grudging towards this and that
prophet in what He had granted to this and that prophet.
He who says this is insolent and a rebel.
Do we not see that Simon Cephas, Matthew, and
Luke, disciples of Christ peace be with them have not
been traduced because they did not reach the measure of
Paul in eloquence and rhetoric? Likewise, it is not a
dishonour to the Prophet may God bless and save him
to have been an unlettered man, like David. On the
contrary, God has made of this point a resplendent miracle
and an argument against the men of his nation who dis-
believed in him ; because it became evident to the Muslim
communities and to the members of the protected cults
that he had not produced the Kur'an as an outcome of
literary eloquence or earthly wisdom.
He was peace be with him brief, concise, and slow
in his speech, and he blamed the loquacious and talkative.
It has come to our knowledge that 'Ayeshah may God
be pleased with her would say: "The Prophet may
God bless and save him did not continue his speech
1 Ps. Ixxi. 1 5 (Peshitta Version).
a Lit. " Spear-player," a title of three poets mentioned in Taj. (s.v.).
56 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
uninterruptedly, as you do; his speech was concisely
cut short, and you display yours ceaselessly." 1 He went
one day to speak, but was embarrassed, and became
silent ; then he said : "This difficulty in speaking fluently
affects sometimes the prophets. " And he peace be with
him heard somebody using pompous verbosity of speech,
and articulating with affectation, and he silenced him; 2
then he went and said to those who were present : " Be
natural in your speech, and let Satan fascinate you not ;
verily, people among you whom I most love, and who will
be the nearest to me in the day of Resurrection, are those
who have the best work ; and people among you whom
I most hate, and who will be the remotest from me in the
day of Resurrection, are those who have the worst work ;
verily, I do hate the chatterers, the pretentious, and those
who indulge in grandiloquence/ 1
Therefore, the question of his being unlettered, for
which he has been blamed by the men of the protected
cults, is not a dishonour nor a discredit to him ; on the
contrary, it is a proof and an enlightening argument in
his favour. If a literary and eloquent man had brought
forth such a book as that I have described it would have
been a miracle ; what would then be the case if its
author were a man of the desert, and unlettered ? This
is a clear proof that God has made him pronounce it,
and that the Holy Spirit has assisted and directed him
1 Cf. I.S. i. ii. 97. Buk. iv. 200. 2 Cf. Musn. ii. 94.
THE VICTORY OF THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND
SAVE HIM IS A MARK OF PROPHETIC OFFICE.
AMONG the miracles of the Prophet peace be with him
is his victory, which all Muslims have used as an argu-
ment. I believed formerly, as other Christians believe,
that victory was a point common to all nations, and that
what was common was not a sign of prophetic office.
When I awoke from the intoxication of error, and arose
from the slumber of indecision, and got rid of the aber-
ration of tradition, I knew then that the question was
not as they believed. Because the Prophet may God
bless and save him came out an orphan, unique, and
poor, as the Most High God said : " Did He not find
thee an orphan, and give thee shelter ? And find thee
erring, and guide thee ? And find thee poor with a
family, and nourish thee?" 1 And he called all the
Arabs and all the nations to the belief in the Most High
God, while people were shooting at him from one bow,
sneering at him, and stirred against him ; this did not
deter him, nor did it discourage him, but he preached
his religion without flinching, and went forward towards
what God had ordered him, without shrinking. When
he noticed that they were rejecting his order, thinking
evil of him, and not entering willingly into the religion
and the grace of God, he made them enter into it by
force ; his claim then triumphed, and the Arabs one and
all submitted to him ; next, miracles and prophecies
succeeded one another among them, and the new religion
1 Kur. xciii. 6-8.
58 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
became dear to them, and truth resplendent ; then, after
their hate and their enmity, their love and attachment to
him reached what the adversaries see and hear.
Who has ever claimed such a victory, in the name of
God, since the creation of the world by God ? a victory
comprising conditions and good qualities such as call to
the Creator of heaven and earth, abstraction from this
world, encouragement for the world to come, prevention
from associating other gods and helpers with God and
from committing iniquity and impurity ? a victory which
was realised in such a decisive and unquestionable way,
in all the countries and regions of the earth, on sea and
land, from the extreme Sus l to the deserts of Turkestan
and Tibet, by means of devotees and deeply pious leaders,
and by proclamations in the name of the God of Abraham,
Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the rest of the prophets ? His
disciples were distinguished by contempt of the world,
abstinence from its possessions and cares, and self-denial
in every pleasure and passion ; and were satisfied with
food strictly sufficient for the maintenance of the body ;
and had such orders for equality of asseveration and
right in judicial decisions, that if a believing Muslim had
killed a member of protected cults, an unbeliever, the
Muslim would have to be killed, as retaliation and jus-
tice ; 2 we know with certainty that such a victory
undoubtedly takes the place of a sign of prophetic office.
As to the victories of other nations, which they
oppose to us, if they had relinquished the passions which
blind and deafen, and discerned their motives, they
would have known that the victory of Alexander, of
Ardashir, son of Babak, and of others was not in God,
nor for God, nor for His prophets, but its aim was solely
fame, power, and reputation, while the victors were
either Atheists, 3 or Dualists, or Pagans ; and this cannot
1 In Morocco (Yakut, iii. 189).
3 This is against the doctrine of the Musn. ii. 178, 180. The author's
view is shared by Abu Hanifah.
3 In Arabic Dahri, i.e. believing in the eternity of matter.
DIVINE ORIGIN OF THE PROPHETS VICTORY 59
be compared with the dignity and sublimity of the
victory of Islam. To this victory there is another
sufficient and decisive evidence, viz. it cannot fail to
have emanated either from God or from Satan ; if they
confess that it is from God, Islam is then true, and they
ought to accept it and embrace it ; and if they pretend
that it is from Satan, Satan would then be in agreement
and not in disagreement with God and His prophets,
obedient and not rebellious, since he would have helped
the man who had called to the One and Eternal God, and
promoted the religion of the man who had ordered fast-
ing and prayer, prohibited fornication, unbelief, immoral-
ity, and iniquity, and made the exaltation and glorification
of God his rallying-cry in fighting, his vanguard in
attacking, and his armour in charging and thrusting.
He who believes that Satan would help to make such a
religion prevail and be maintained has indeed a good
opinion of him, speaks well of him, and contradicts what
God and His prophets have said about him. How can
Satan help a man who calls to such a religion as this in
which his roots are pulled up, his chances cut off, and
his followers and disciples utterly destroyed ?
Some wicked people thought the same thing of the
Messiah peace be with Him and the Rabbis of the
Jews said of Him: "This one drives out demons by
means of the prince of the demons/* But the Christ
said to them : " Every kingdom which is divided against
itself shall perish, and shall not stand, and every city in
which there is disunion and disagreement shall not last,
and shall not be firm ; if it is Satan who casts out Satan,
how then can his kingdom and his might last?" 1 And
the Jews were put to shame.
This is our argument against those who say of the
Prophet may God bless and save him what the Jews
said of the Messiah peace be with Him* Among what
the Prophet peace be with him related on behalf of
1 Matt. xii. 24-26.
60 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
God about Satan is the following saying: "Ay, the
partisans of Satan, they are the losers." 1 And he said :
14 Verily the devil is to you a foe, so take him as a foe;
he only calls his partisans to be the fellows of the blaze/' 2
And he said : " Go forth therefrom, for, verily, thou art
pelted, and, verily, upon thee is my curse unto the day of
judgment." 3 And he said : " I will surely fill hell with
thee and with those who follow thee amongst them all
together/' 4 And he said: "O ye who believe, follow
not the traces of Satan." 5 And he said : " I seek refuge
in the Lord of men, the King of men, the God of men,
from the evil of the Whisperer who slinks off." 6 And
the Prophet peace be with him ordered us to take
refuge in God from him, in every prayer and at every
opportune moment by saying: "I take refuge in the
Hearer and the Knower, from the stoned Satan." 7
If Satan helps the man who curses him and unveils
his wickedness to the world, we shall not be secure
against the fact that all the religions which appeared in
the name of a Unique God might have been in agreement
with Satan, and from him. All the nations agree that
Satan enjoins association of other gods with God, and
worship of idols and fire; that he favours adultery,
fornication, and treachery, which are the objects of his
desire and his suggestions ; that he is an enemy of God,
and an enemy of His prophets who command the contrary
of all this. Since God cannot be of the followers of
Satan, and Satan cannot be of the followers of God, the
victory of the Prophet is then from God and not from
1 Kur. Iviii. 20. 2 Kur. xxxv. 6.
3 Kur. xxxviii. 78-79. 4 ur. xxxviii. 85.
6 Kur. xxiv. 21. 6 Kur. cxiv. I -4.
7 This sentence is not found in the Kur'an ; it is perhaps quoted from
a traditional saying.
THOSE WHO CALLED TO HIS RELIGION AND WITNESSED
THE TRUTH OF HIS CAUSE WERE MOST HONEST AND
SOME people have attributed forgery and falsehood to the
disciples of the Prophet may God bless and save him
but because they have traduced them, they have sinned,
and because they have deviated from their right path,
they have gone astray. I shall narrate from their virtues,
their asceticism, and their piety some facts that would
cause such people to think well of them and cease their
ASCETICISM OF ABU BAKR MAY GOD BE PLEASED
THE first one is Abu Bakr may God be pleased with
him. His detachment from the world, his contempt of it,
and his keeping away from it reached such a pitch, that
wnen he was called to the Caliphate, which is the most
exalted office in the world for dignity and the greatest
for honour, the one which carries with it in the highest
degree might, majesty, power, pleasure, and security, he
refused and rejected it, until it was forced upon him.
Some days after his election he turned to the people,
crying in a loud voice : " Is there anybody to cancel it ?
Is there anybody to cancel it ? " When nobody answered
62 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
him, he addressed the people, saying : " My election was
a surprise ; I only accepted it because I feared divisions ;
by God, I did not covet it, either in day or in night, nor
did I ask it from God, either secretly or openly ; I have
no pleasure in it nor capacity for it" 1 Has anyone
heard of a man more noble than this, more humble and
modest, and more lofty in care for heavenly things ?
His self-restraint and his scrupulousness reached such
a point that he fixed for himself a monthly allowance of
sixty dirhams* from the fund of the Muslims. It has
been said that he asked that this stipend should be taken
from him and paid back to the fund of the Muslims in
order that he might spend from his own earnings, as
others did ; this the Muslims refused, and he said to
them : " Then I return your Caliphate to you ; by God,
I shall not hold it except on this condition ; " then they
agreed. It has come to our knowledge that he may
God be pleased with him has been seen, some days
after he had become Caliph, offering his shirt to be sold
by auction. It has been said to him in his illness : " We
will call a physician for thee ; " and he answered : "The
physician saw me." They said "And what did he tell
thee?" And he said " He told me that God does what
pleases Him." 3 When his illness became more severe,
he said " Where is your physician ? Let him divert it if
he is right ; by the One who has glorified the Father of
al-Kasim, 4 there is no soul in the earth that I would wish
to see pass away in preference to my soul, not even the
soul of this fragile fly ; do you know why ? " They said
44 No;" and he said " By God, because I fear that short-
comings should interpose between me and Islam."
At the time of his death he declared to 'Umar ibnul-
Khattab may God be pleased with him saying U O
'Umar, if thou fulfillest my recommendation, thou wilt
meet with no accident more profitable than death, with
1 Cf. Suyuti, 70 (edit. Jarret). 2 1.S. iii. i. 132 says 6000 dirhams.
2 Cf. Suyuti, 82. < I.e. the Prophet Muhammad.
WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH OF THE PROPHET 63
which in any case thou wilt surely meet ; but if thou
neglectest my recommendation, there will be no accident
with which thou mayest meet worse than this same death,
which thou canst not avoid" When death was near, he
declared to 'Umar may God be pleased with both of
them saying " I have acquired nothing from the fund of
the Muslims but this young camel on which I laid the
water which I and others drank, and this maid-servant
who served me and you, and this mantle." Then he
spurned the latter with his foot and said " And I have
given back all that, and I am well and happy." 1
His piety and justice reached such a point that when
two men came quarrelling before him, the one letting not
the other finish his evidence, Abu Bakr restrained him
several times from that, but he did not desist ; then Abu
Bakr lifted up his staff, and the man, in parrying it with
his hand, touched its handle, which broke off; whereupon
he went away. Abu Bakr may God be pleased with
him was much afflicted, and said to 'Umar " Would
that I had never accepted this charge ; and no one de-
ceived me in it but thee." And 'Umar said " By God,
this charge is more necessary to thee than thy own ear ;
by God, we must strike now with sticks, now with
swords." Then he rose up in the company of 'Umar, and
went to the house of that man ; and Abu Bakr presented
the staff to him, and knelt down before him, and said to
him : " O man, retaliate ; it is more pleasing to me that
this should be speedily done." The man refused, saying
14 1 was on the point of coming to thee to ask thee to for-
give me, because I irritated thee." And 'Umar said to
the man " Do what he has asked, and absolve him."
And the man said " O Caliph of the Apostle of God, thou
art absolved; may God forgive thee/' Then Abu Bakr
stood up, saying "May God forgive thee as thou hast
forgiven me, and may He pardon thee as thou hast par-
l d I.S. iii. i. 136 seqq.
64 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
And he may God be pleased with him delivered a
speech and said " I have assumed government over you,
while I am not the best of you. If I am right, help me,
and if I fail, strengthen me ; he that is weak among you
is strong before me, until I have rendered justice to him ;
and he that is strong among you is weak before me, until
I have extorted justice from him ; sincerity is an obliga-
tion, and deceit is a treason ; as long as I obey God, obey
me ; but if I rebel against Him, I have no right to be
obeyed by you." 1
To a man with such detachment from the world when
possessing it, and to him who spoke in such a way about
the Caliphate which was imposed upon him, why should
we attribute acceptance and utterance of falsehood ?
1 Cf. I.S. iii. i. 129. Tab. I, 4, 1829, and 1845-6. Suyuti, 69.
ASCETICISM OF <UMAR IBNUL-KHATTAB MAY GOD'S
GRACE AND PLEASURE BE WITH HIM.
There is nothing in the world higher than the Cali-
phate, and nothing lower than a mere pittance. There-
fore, if the Caliphate comes to a man freely and spon-
taneously, and he abstains from it, and is content with his
mere subsistence from it, and satisfied with nakedness and
poverty, while spreading pebbles under him as a mattress,
and using his arm as a pillow, and refraining his soul
from every passion and pleasure, and rejecting and des-
pising the treasures of Chosrau hidden for thousands of
years when brought to him, and not stretching his hand
to a dirham, nor a dinar, nor a pearl, nor a precious
stone, nor a rich garment, nor a jewel, nor a male-servant,
nor a slave-girl from them, who in the earth is more
pious, more modest, and more austere than he ?
When he had to dispatch an army, he would say :
44 O men, I owe you what I have engaged myself to do
the day I assumed government over you : that I should
not take a dirham from your possessions without paying
for it ; and if it comes to me, that I should not spend it
except in the right way ; that I should not detain you
long, when you have been dispatched ; that I should not
impose upon you a task beyond your power ; and that I
should be the father of your family until you come back."
He would repair to the houses of wives whose husbands
were absent, and greet them, and being the Commander
of the Faithful, buy himself their necessary things, and
bring them the letters of their husbands and dispatch
their letters to them.
66 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
It is related that seeing a wife whose husband was
absent carrying a jar, ' Umar may God be pleased
with him took the jar from her and carried it on his
head until he reached her house. He met an old Christian
begging and saying " O my God, judge between me and
the Muslims ; they have taken tribute from me when I
was young, and they have betrayed me when I became
old/' And 'Umar said : " Here is 'Umar at thy service/'
Then he went with haste, filled a sack with flour, and
called a porter to carry it; then he said to him " No, I
would rather carry it myself;" and he carried it on his
head, and brought it to the old man with some money
that he gave him ; and he granted him a monthly allow-
ance for his food.
A basket of sweets had been sent to him, and he said :
" Has something like it been sent to all the Muslims ? "
They answered " No." And he said : " There is no need
for me to have an enjoyment or a food which is not com-
mon to all the Muslims ; " and he ordered that it should
be taken away. It has been said to him at the time of
his illness "We will bring thee a physician;" and he
said : " If my recovery depended on an anointment of my
ear, I would not have anointed it ; how good is my Lord
to whom I am going!" The inhabitants of Damascus
observed how he alighted from his camel, led it, reached
a river, sat down, took off his sandals with his own hands,
and crossed the river; and they said: "We have not
seen a King in asceticism except this."
It is related that *Ali ibn Abu Talib may God be
pleased with him was once working in a garden that he
had, and he heard a loud voice. And Hasan, son of 'Ali
peace be with both of them said : " Father, come up,
and thou wilt see a wonder." It was 'Umar running
after a camel of the alms-fund which had bolted ; and he
was dripping with sweat. And 'Ali may God be pleased
with him said, "This is the quick and clever son of
WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH OF THE PROPHET 67
Hantamah, 1 gentle without being weak, and firm without
being severe. "
When Hormizan, King of Ahwaz, was brought before
him, arrayed in his gorgeous garments, he (Hormizan)
said to the crowd who were looking with amazement at
him: " Where js the Commander of the Faithful ? " They
answered: "He is that man who is asleep." He said:
11 Where are his chamberlains ? " They answered : " He
has no chamberlains." He said: "Where is his body-
guard?" They answered: "He is the body-guard of
himself." He said: "Where are his throne and his
bolster?" They answered: "His throne is the ground
and earth, his mattress is the pebbles, and his bolster is
his hand." And he said to them : " It is by this that you
have overcome us. You have made light of life and the
world, and we have loved both of them."
When the treasures and the precious stones of Chosrau
were brought to him and poured out in the mosque, he
showed sorrow ; and it was said to him : " O Commander
of the Faithful, it is a day of joy;" and he said : "No
people have had such a conquest without having dis-
played their strength among themselves." He then sat
down and began to divide the booty with the palm of his
hand. His son was sitting aloof like a sheep with a
broken leg. 2 When he noticed that his father was not
giving him anything, he said: "O father, it seems that
thou dost not believe that I have a right to this booty,"
'Umar answered : " Yes, my boy ; but I fear that my
palm should become broader for thee." One of those who
were present said : "I will give him what thy palm has
contained for me, and fill thy palm afresh for me." And
he did that. And his little daughter took a dirham from
the booty; he shouted at her, but she did not throw it
1 Mother of 'Umar and daughter of Hashim, son of Mughlrah (Tab.
i, 5, 27-28).
a Proverb meaning " He was quiet and distressed."
68 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
And 4 Umar may God be pleased with him rose and
went to her ; and the child put it in her mouth ; but he
did not cease to press her throat until she ejected it.
A man gave him two garments, but he sold them, and
with their price he bought five slaves whom he manu-
mitted, saying : " The man who prefers two coats to the
emancipation of these is feeble-minded."
ASCETICISM OF <ALI IBN ABU TALIB 1 MAY GOD BE
PLEASED WITH HIM.
IT is said that some days after *Ali ibn Abu Talib may
God honour him was made Caliph, he was seen offering
his sword to be sold by auction, while saying : " Had we
supper for one night, we would not have sold it," and
he was of all men the one who most needed it, but
necessity compelled him to sell it; and he had every
year much money from the corn of a real estate that he
possessed. He would empty every day the house of the
public treasury, sprinkle it with water, and sleep in it,
saying: "O gold, beguile other than me; the ground
has become empty for thee, and thou mayst be white or
It is told that at night he had a torn and worn out
mantle over him. The maid put on him and his family
a mantle from the mantles of the alms-fund. He disliked
its soft nap, and said u What is this ? " She answered
"It is a mantle from -the alms-fund;" and he threw it
away from himself and said : " You have made us feel
the cold for the rest of the night." Once when he was
in his house a man called him ; he went out to him with
haste, saying " Here I am at your service ! "
1 Since a special chapter is devoted to <Ali by a courtier of Muta-
wakkil, it seems that there is some exaggeration in the matter of the
hatred which some Muslim historians attribute to Mutawakkil against the
memory of 'AH.
2 Cf. Taj. ill 335-
ASCETICISM OF <UMAR IBN 'ABDUL-'AZiZ, AND OF <AB-
DALLAH IBN 'UMAR IBNUL-KHATTAB, AND OF SOME
OTHER PIOUS MUSLIMS MAY GOD BE PLEASED WITH
ALL OF THEM.
IF somebody says that the above men were accustomed
to poverty, and that the only proper thing for them to do
was what they did, the answer is that it generally happens
that a man accustomed to poverty becomes extravagant
in pleasures when coming to a condition of wealth, and
takes from it the opportunity of doing what had escaped
him in his early days. So, Mu'awiah, and his son Yazld,
and the Umayyad Caliphs who succeeded them, lived in
pleasure and had their satisfaction in everything asso-
ciated with food, drink, dresses, perfumes, and passion.
In their government two goats did not butt each other, 1
and there were not two men to oppose them. An ex-
ception is to be made in the case of Walid ibn Yazid ibn
4 Abdul-Malik, who having completely withdrawn the veil
of shame, thrown modesty away and neglected his charge,
was beleaguered, and met with the decreed fate. 2
But this 'Umar ibn 'Abdul-Aziz- may God's grace
be with him although preceded by many luxurious
brothers of the world such as those we have mentioned,
did not indulge in anything of the kind they had done.
His asceticism and his contemptuousness for the world
reached such a pitch that after having been the most
handsome and the best scented man of all his contem-
poraries, the most elegant and graceful in attire, he
mounted the pulpit after he had been made Caliph, and
1 i.e. nobody showed them the slightest opposition.
2 He was killed.
WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH OF THE PROPHET 71
said : " By God, I did not desire this office at all, nor did
I ask it from God secretly or openly ; if there is one who
does not want me, now is his time." He confirmed this
saying by the following fact : One of the steps in the
stairs of his house was demolished ; a relative of his re-
stored it. But 'Umar may God be pleased with him
said : " Praise be to God ! It seems that the one who
did this had envied me for the fact that I would leave
the world without having put one brick upon another/'
Then he ordered that it should be demolished.
The maid brought him hot water on a cold day. He
said to her : " Wherefrom obtainedst thou this?" She
answered: "We have heated it where the food of the
Muslims is cooked." And he said: "Hadst thou not
brought it by ignorance, thou wouldst not have served
me any more ; give them the price of the wood." His
servant bought him a garment for ten dirhams ; but he
said : "This is too soft, I want one of a lower quality."
And the servant said: " Before his Caliphate I bought him
a garment of embroidered silk for seven hundred dinars,
and he said that he wanted one of a better quality." He
was once informed that the Umayyads were grieved at
the manner he used to remove abuses, and he said " I
wish God had removed all abuses for me, because when-
ever I remove an abuse a bit is cut off my body, but at
the leaving of my soul I shall remove the last abuse." 1
And he said : " I did not lie, ever since I had my reason ;
a lie dishonours the man who utters it."
The prefect of Hims wrote to him requesting an in-
crease of allowance for the expenses of his paper and of
his lamp-oil, and asking his permission to restore the
ramparts of the city ; and he wrote to him : "Make thy
1 The energy displayed by this Caliph for the removal of abuses is
best illustrated by the following saying reported by Suyuti (p. 361) : "The
Caliphs are but three Abu Bakr for his waging war on the apostates,
'Umar b. 'Abdul- 'Aziz for his removal of abuses, and Mutawakkil for his
revival of traditional doctrine."
72 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
pen thinner, and render thy speech concise in combining
two needs in one ; as to the lamp-oil, my recommendation
is that thou shouldst go in a dark night to the mosque
without light ; as to the ramparts of the city, thou shouldst
fortify thy city in justice, and purify its streets from
The prefect of 'Irak wrote to him that a great fortune
was gathered in the public treasury; and he enjoined
him to increase with it the stipends of the Muslims, for
their welfare and the welfare of their children. The
prefect wrote to him that he has done so, and much
fortune was left ; and he enjoined him to marry young
men to young women. The prefect wrote to him that
he has done it, and much fortune was still left ; and he
answered him that he should encourage the members of
protected cults to build houses, and to lend them money
in advance, because 'Umar and the family of 'Umar were
in no need of anything from it. 1
It has come to our knowledge that 'Abdallah ibn
'Umar ibnul-Khattab may God's mercy be with both
of them liked grapes in his illness; his people found
him a bunch, and bought it for one dinar. A man came
asking for grapes, and he ordered that it should be given
to him ; and they went and bought it back from the man,
and returned it to him. Another man came asking for
grapes, and again he gave it to him, and refused to taste
It has come also to our knowledge, that when Rabi* ibn
Khaitham 2 may God's grace be with him became ill
and was asked if he would call a physician. He answered :
"I first wanted that, but then I abstained from it and
said ' Where are 'Ad, Thamud, and Karun ? There is
much to be said about them. There were physicians
among them, but none of the attendants or those attended
1 This story is related by I.S. iii. i. 21 5 of the Caliph 'Umar b. Khattab.
2 A man with this name occurs in Tab. (3, 4, 2553) as Khuthaim.
Cf. the remark of Flugel (p. 98) on the text of the Fihrist (p. 225).
WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH OF THE PROPHET 73
to was left ; what is then the meaning of a physician
when nothing can stop death ? ' "
A man from Syria, who had become governor of
Basrah, used to deceive the readers of the ur'an in
enticing them into accepting stipends and gifts from him.
He related that to an ascetic woman ; and she said to
him : " O Corruptor of the Readers ! by God, I am
ashamed to ask an earthly thing from the Possessor of
the earth, how could I then ask it from a poor servant
like myself ? "
One of the Hashimite governors of Kufah heard
of much asceticism and self-abnegation concerning a
devotee, and sent him much money; but the man refused
to accept it. The Hashimite believed that he was one of
those who hated the Hashimites' coming into power, and
believed their money to be illicit ; and he wanted to
punish him. This reached the ears of the man, who
stood up, performed many rak'ahs, and said : " O Lord,
they have made me love that from which Thou hast held
me back, and they have wanted me to do what Thou hast
forbidden me to do ; take me then to Thee." And they
found him dead in his hut.
One of the Caliphs made his pilgrimage, and came to
an ascetic of Maccah, who, however, did not lift up his
head to look at him. He offered him much money to
distribute among people he knew, but the ascetic refused
to accept it. He asked him to advise him, and the ascetic
said : " Fear God in the Muslim affairs, the settlement of
which He has confided to thee, and be content with the
Kur'an as guide and teacher."
Such is the asceticism of several kings, princes, and
men of piety in the Muslim community, who, among the
kings of the earth and the nations of the prophets, have
no one comparable and similar to them since the creation
of the world. Falsehood and lies are not attributed to
men of this kind ; indeed, the earth embraced them, and
they fled from it ; it came to them with the beautiful
74 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
things found on its surface, but they turned their backs
to it ; it threw open to them the precious minerals of its
interior 1 and its hidden treasures ; it laid at their feet its
most subtle traps and its most alluring baits and charms,
but they did not come near them, and were satisfied with
tatters and rags and with unpalatable and coarse food.
Before their conversion to Islam, they were men of
power, pride, wealth, cattle, flocks, property, and posses-
sions. I say this in the truth outside which I do not love
anything, for the sake of which I uphold every saying,
and outside which I have no hope for any success, If lies
and falsehood may be ascribed to men who endured so
much and triumphed so brilliantly over the world, no one
will be exempt from this suspicion and accusation.
The disciples of Moses and of Christ peace be with
them were pious and upright ; no one is ashamed of
truth, which must be set above everything. But if men
comparable to those we have mentioned are suspected, a
fortiori we may suspect a man who did not reach the de-
gree of their asceticism, and was not tested with the like
of their hardships and the process of their refinement If
we must accept the sayings and trust the narrative of
the disciples of Moses and Christ peace be with them
who left a net, or abandoned an advantageous affair, or
renounced a business, or a field, a fortiori we must trust
a man who owned all the Caliphate, but deemed it more
despicable than spittle in the river or dung in the sea. 2
If somebody advances the statement : " Your masters
endured what you have mentioned for the sake of power
and dignity," we will rebut it with a similar statement
and say : " This is the case also with your masters,
because when they moved from a low and mean estate
to that in which people obeyed them and sought to be
blessed by them, and wealthy and influential men
gathered round them, and had effective orders for men
1 Lit., " Liver."
2 Proverb meaning something low, small, and despicable.
WITNESSES TO THE TRUTH OF THE PROPHET 75
and money their soul desired dignity, for the sake of
which they endured hardship and privation. " You know
what Simon Cephas did to a man who had sold his estate
and brought him its price in order to ingratiate himself
with him by means of it ; his reward with him was that
he was irritated against him, and asked God to kill him
at once with his wife, because the poor man had not
brought him all the price, but had kept back something
for himself and his wife, 1 One is loth to impute avarice
to the disciples of Christ ; do not impute it then to the
disciples of Muhammad peace be with him.
If they say " Although your masters were themselves
honest and pious, yet we suspect them because their tes-
timony was for their cousin and for the sake of attracting
people to his religion/' we will answer " This was also
the case with your masters ; since the only witnesses of
Moses and Christ were their cousins."
If they say " What need have we of the testimony of
our co-religionists when your Prophet believes in our
prophets?" we will say " What would you say then
about the man who had accepted the claims of your
prophets before the appearance of the Prophet may
God bless and save him ? " Was he right or wrong ?
Was he sound-minded or feeble-minded ? Further, be-
tween the description of the Christ in whom the Muslims
believe and your Christ there is a great gap ; the Chris-
tians say that He is eternal, but with us He is not eternal ;
they relate that He is Creator, but with us He is created ;
they pretend that He was killed, but with us He is living.
These are contradictory and not synonymous terms.
Moreover, there is an obligation on the part of all men
towards God to seek after truth and to follow it in all
ages ; and there is an obligation on the part of God
may His memory be exalted towards men, to confirm
truth, to make it prevail, and to destroy the arguments
of those who waver in its acceptance. We do not doubt
1 Acts v. i seq.
76 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
that many nations surrounding Egypt and Syria had
heard, before the appearance of Muhammad may God
bless and save him the history of Moses and that of the
rest of the prophets, and their souls were longing for it
as well as for the history of Christ, and were seeking
information about them from those they happened to
meet ; now were those people obliged to accept what
they were hearing concerning those prophets and to
believe in it, or not ? If you do not declare its accept-
ance as necessary, you will disbelieve in every prophet ;
and if you declare it to be necessary, we will ask " Why
should it be necessary when those who announced it and
bore witness to it were either Jews or Christians, and he
who accepts the saying of his co-religionists and is
deceived by it, according to your opinion contradicts
truth and inclines to inaccuracy and falsehood, because
he has accepted about his prophets the statements of
their co-religionists and their cousins who did not
possess either miracles or evidence. If the acceptance of
such statements was obligatory for those nations, before
the Prophet Muhammad may God bless and save him
bore witness to them, the acceptance, therefore, of the
statements of the companions of the Prophet may God
bless and save him concerning their master is likewise
obligatory ; the more so, that the prophets had borne
witness to him, described his origin and his time, and
mentioned, for the verification of their statements, what
the Muslims only can claim. If the Jews set forth, with
ignorance and pride, a claim to those prophecies which I
will relate, what will the Christians say who testify that
God has destroyed the Jews, erased their religion from
the register of the earth, and declared that He will not
have mercy on them, nor will He cancel any of their
lapses, nor will He accept from them any atonement or
ransom, unless they divert from Judaism and disavow
their connection with it ?
IF THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE HIMHAD
NOT APPEARED, THE PROPHECIES OF THE PROPHETS
ABOUT ISHMAEL PEACE BE WITH HIM AND ABOUT
THE PROPHET PEACE BE WITH HIM WHO IS THE
LAST OF THE PROPHETS, WOULD HAVE NECES-
SARILY BECOME WITHOUT OBJECT.
THE Most High God does not contradict His promise,
nor does He belie His words and disappoint the man
who puts his trust in Him. He had announced to
Abraham peace be with him and Hagar God's mercy
be with her clear and joyful messages, which we do
not see fulfilled and realised except by the appearance of
the Prophet may God bless and save him. Indeed, to
Hagar messages have been announced such as no wife of
ancient men can claim the like of them, after the pure
and the virgin Mary, mother of the Christ peace be
with him. Moreover, to Mary peace be with her the
Christ was announced once only, while to Hagar Ishmael
was announced twice ; and to his father peace be with
him he was announced several times. God willing, I
will explain this in its due place.
What the Most High God revealed to Abraham
peace be with him exclusively about Ishmael, is His
saying through Moses peace be with him in the tenth
chapter of the first Book of the Torah. God said there
to Abraham peace be with him " I have heard (thy
prayer) * about Ishmael ; I have blessed him, increased
him, and magnified him exceedingly : twelve princes
1 In the Biblical quotations of the following pages the words between
parentheses are missing in the Syriac Version.
78 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation." 1
This is in the version of Marcus, the translator (tarja-
mari) ; but in the Torah, translated by seventy-two
Jewish priests, it is said "He will beget twelve nations." 2
No promises and no announcements about anyone could
be greater than the saying of the Most High God: "I
have blessed him, increased him, and multiplied him ex-
ceedingly. " Less than this coming from the Most High
God is great, and not so much as this is sublime, be-
cause the measure that God considers as considerable
and exceedingly great, there is no measure greater than
it. This is a rebuke and a rebuflf to that rude and im-
pudent man who found fault with Ishmael and derided
him, because God said about him : " He will be a wild
ass of men." I will explain it in this chapter as a re-
buff against that blockhead and dolt. 3
Moses peace be with him had already prophesied
with a prophecy similar to this in the ninth chapter of the
first Book, saying that when Hagar fled from Sarah, the
angel of God appeared to her and said : " O Hagar, Sarai's
maid, whence comest thou, and where art thou going ? "
(Hagar answering him) said : " I flee from my mistress
Sarai." The angel of the Lord said unto her " Return
to thy mistress and submit to her ; because I will multi-
ply (thy posterity and) thy seed, that it shall not be
numbered for multitude, 4 and behold thou shalt be with
child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name
Ishmael, because God hath heard (thy affliction) and thy
humility ; and he will be a wild ass of men, and his hand
1 Genes, xvii. 2O. 2 Sept., d>#eAca C&VTJ yevvrjaci.
3 Al-Kindi said to his opponent with reference to an unnamed man :
" Including a person whom thou knowest and whose name I should tremble
to write," Apology, p. 89 (edit. Muir). The person alluded to by the
Christian apologist seems to have been Ishmael, the wild ass. The word
l air is used in many derisive senses, and in Mesopotamia it means in our
days " pudenda hominis."
4 The Arabic lacks " And the angel of the Lord said to her " found
PROPHECIES ABOUT ISHMAEL 79
will be over all, and the hand of all (stretched) to him, 1
and his abode shall be on all his brother's frontiers." 2
This is the second announcement uttered face to face by
the angel to Hagar peace be with her on behalf of the
Most High God ; and he told her that God would make
her son's hand the higher, and the hand of all others the
lower with regard to him. We have not seen that this
point of the prophecy of Moses peace be with him
was fulfilled and realised, except after the appearance of
the Prophet Muhammad may God bless and save him.
And Moses said, in the thirteenth chapter of the first
Book, that God said to Abraham peace be with him
" And also of the son of thy bondwoman will I make a
great nation, because he is from thy seed." 3 This is the
third prophecy about Ishmael peace be with him. After
this saying, Moses said " And when Abraham rose up
in the morning (he took out of his habitation Hagar and
his child, in conformity to the wish of Sarah, and went
to where God had ordered him about her; and he gave
her food and provisions, and put the child on her shoulder,
and sent her away on her journey. And Hagar depar-
ted) 4 and wandered in the wilderness (called) Beersheba ;
and her water was spent ; 5 and she cast the child under
one of the shrubs, and went off 6 at a distance of a bow-
shot 7 in order that she 8 might not see the death of her son.
And for that she was weeping and grieved. And God
heard the voice of the lad, and the angel of God called to
1 i.e. soliciting favour from him. These words explain the meaning of
" a higher and a lower hand " of the following lines. The higher or upper
hand is that which gives, and the lower hand is that which receives. A
saying to this effect on the part of the Prophet is reported by Bukhari and
Muslim. See also Kastallani's Irs had iii 30-32, and Ibn Hanbal's Musn.
3 Genes, xvi. 8-13. 3 Genes, xxi. 13.
4 All this is somewhat paraphrastic.
5 The Syriac adds u from the water skin."
6 Syr. adds " against (him)." 1 Syr. adds " because she said."
8 Syr. "I."
8o BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Hagar out of heaven, and said 'What aileth thee,
Hagar ? Let thy heart rejoice, for God hath heard the
voice of the lad j 1 arise, lift him up, and take hold of him,
for (God) will make him a great nation.' And God
opened her eyes, and behold ! 2 a well of water ; and she
crawled and filled the bottle (from it), and gave the lad
drink from it. And God was with her and with the lad 3
until he grew ; and his abode was in the wilderness of
Paran, and he applied himself to learn archery." 4
This prophecy of Moses peace be with him about
Ishmael and his mother Hagar is similar to the saying
of the angel Gabriel to the virgin Mary: "Our Lord is
with thee, O blessed among women/' 5 The Christians
have been deluded by this saying, and have said that God
was dwelling in her, because Gabriel said to her " Our
Lord is with thee ; " but Moses peace be with him said
the same thing about Hagar, that " God was with her
and with the lad until he grew/'
These are four messages exclusively about Ishmael
peace be with him. Two of them came down to Abraham
and two to Hagar. Let that stupid and feeble-minded
man find us messages more numerous, more resplendent
and genuine than these from the Most High God, which
have followed one another over parents for the sake of
their child, since the beginning of the world.
The messages delivered by God to Abraham con-
cerning all his posterity and children are also two ; one
of them is the saying of the Most High God to Abraham,
when he offered his son for sacrifice : " Because thou
hast done this deed,* and hast not withheld thy son, thine
only son, by myself do I swear that I will bless thee, I
will multiply thy posterity (and I will make them) as the
number of the stars of the heaven, and as the sand of the
1 Syr. adds " where he is." 2 Syr. " and she saw."
8 The translator misunderstood the Syriac corroborative which only
means " with the lad."
4 Genes, xxi. 14-21. 5 Luk. i. 28.
6 Syr. " Order, message."
PROPHECIES ABOUT ISHMAEL 81
sea shores ; and thy children shall inherit the countries
of their enemies ; and in them l shall all the nations of
the earth be blessed. " 2 The Torah says, too : " Abraham
said i Behold I am dying, and I have no child, and no
successor; and my heir is my servant, 3 and one born in
my house/ Then the Lord said to him 'This shall not
be thine heir ; 4 but he 5 that shall come out of thine own
loins shall be thine heir. Get out 6 and look toward the
stars of heaven ; if thou art able to number them, thou
shalt number also thy children.'" 7
The first four prophecies are exclusively about
Ishmael, and Ishmael has, too, a share with Isaac and
his other brethren in the last two; these make six
peremptory prophecies and messages about him. In
spite of this, that rude Garmecite, 8 wicked and ignorant,
pretends that Ishmael is not counted among the children
of Abraham peace be with him. The above words were
realised and fulfilled by the appearance of the Prophet
may God bless and save him. Prior to that, all Christians
and Jews knew that the children of Abraham, known by
his name, and related to him, 9 did not cease to be among
various nations of the earth. A company of them were
in Egypt as slaves to Pharaohs and to Copts, treated
rudely and oppressed ; and a company of them were in
1 Syr. "in thy seed." a Genes, xxii. 16-18.
3 All this is somewhat paraphrastic.
4 Genes, xv. 2-3. 5 Syr. " thy son."
8 Syr. " And He made him get out and said to him."
7 Genes, xv. 4-5. The last words are somewhat paraphrastic.
8 The Kamus explains this word as being a relative adjective referring
to \h&Jaramikah about whom see Tab. i, 2, 827. The word seems to me
to be the Syriac relative adjective " Gramkaya " from Beit Garmai, country
bordering the ancient Adiabene, on the east bank of the Tigris and the
9 I.e. were called " Ishmaelites." Syriac writers even before the time
of Muhammad called the Arabs by this name. See Q\\rNarsai Homiliae^
i. pp. 115-117; and our Sources Syriaques^ i. pp. in, 123, 144, and ii.
82 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
the direction of the deserts and in the Hijaz, amidst hard-
ships and wars. Those who dwelt in Egypt went, later,
to Syria where war was waged against them morning
and evening by those who were around them. Then
they were not long in being scattered, banished, stripped
of their power, deprived of their Kingdom, and dispersed
in different regions and countries of the earth. Bands of
black men ] and waves of white men, molested them until
the Prophet may God bless and save him appeared ;
then after a long time all the prophecies were realised
and the messages fulfilled, and the children of Ishmael
triumphed over those who were around them, pulverised
them, scattered them in the air, as the prophets peace
be with them had foretold, and ground them. They
spread in all the regions of the earth like young locusts,
and in competing with other nations they became as
their life-blood, 2 and excelled them at the measure of
the distance of the Pleiades from the earth, in India,
Abyssinia, extreme Sus, 3 Turkestan, and Khazar; 4 they
reigned, too, in East and West, and where the waves of
the Mediterranean and Euxine seas 5 collide. The name
of Abraham appeared then in the mouth of all nations,
morning and evening, and there is at present no man, no
woman, no male slave, no female slave, rich or poor,
happy or unhappy, on sea or on land, who does not
believe in One God, glorify the God of Abraham, and
seek His protection.
As to Judaism, it had appeared only in one section of
mankind. As to Christianity, although it appeared in a
great and glorious nation, yet in the land of Abraham
1 Lit. " red." The Taj. says that the two epithets " black and white "
comprise all mankind, the red type being included in the word " white."
2 Many ancient philosophers believed the soul to reside in the blood ;
cf. Aristotle, De amma I, 2 ; cf. Levit. xvii. 18.
3 In Morocco.
4 Country corresponding approximately with the ancient Hyrcania ;
see Yakut (ii. 436).
5 Lit. of the two seas : Bahrain.
PROPHECIES ABOUT ISHMAEL 83
and his wife Sarah, and their forefathers, and in the land
of Hagar and her fathers, it had not wielded the sceptre
and held absolute power and sway such as those
vouchsafed by God to their inhabitants through the
Prophet may God bless and save him.
In favour of what I have claimed I shall now bring
testimonies from the prophets, but I should first begin
by refuting that rude Garmecite who belittled Ishmael
and blamed him on account of the description given him
by God. Were it not for his stupidity and the weakness
of his intelligence, he would have known that the words
of revelation have meanings and mysteries understood
only by people who are far advanced in science. The
Torah said that God " became a lion and devoured the
children of Israel ; " 1 it is said, too, in the Torah, that
"God is a burning fire;" 2 and God is neither fire nor a
ravenous beast ; but these are taken as illustrations for
wrath, irritation, punishment, and revenge. The Christ
called the head of His apostles, the one whom he ordered
to shepherd his community, Simeon the stone (Peter) ; and
He called all His nation Sheep; and He called Himself
Lamb of God. If one were tempted to answer that stupid
and weak-minded man, one would tell him that a wild ass
is stronger and more powerful than a lamb which is
devoured by the wolf, and coveted by the dog and the
fox. There is indeed no animal among quadrupeds
weaker and less powerful than it. If that ignorant dolt
and his followers return to the interpretation of these
names we also will begin to interpret and say :
The interpretation of the wild ass comprises many
meanings, one of which is that God may He be blessed
and exalted indicated by this name that Ishmael peace
be with him would dwell in dry and arid lands, protect
his consort, and be warlike and jealous, in the same way
as the wild ass dwells in the deserts, castrates the male
organ from his young ones out of jealousy, and attacks
xxiv. 9. 2 Exod. xxiv. 17.
84 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
vigorously herds pertaining to other males, not ceasing
to fight against the male in kicking it and biting it, until
it has conquered its female and its herd. When it has
got them, it keeps them and protects them, and defends
their young ones, and does not eat them as lions and
wolves do ; these seek victory only to devour and to
gulp, but wild asses seek victory from the love of action
Further, Go'd called Ishmael by this name in order that
no means may be found for denying him peace be with
him a dwelling in the deserts, and in order to signify
that God had placed him in these deserts for a great and
beautiful purpose, viz. that He, the Most High, wished to
preserve his genealogy and to keep intact his freedom,
in order that he might not have that slavery among the
nations that others had, nor be expatriated and torn
away as others have been.
Let that miserable idiot understand these meanings,
and not vilify the one about whom God may He be
blessed and exalted said that "He has blessed him
and magnified him exceedingly. " He who belittles him
that God has magnified is like the man who magnifies
him that God has belittled : suffice it to say that the one
who does this does it to his shame and his confusion !
The wild ass has also the meaning which the Persians
and other peoples have given to it ; they called a man
warlike, courageous, and skilled in the art of fighting
"Gor;" hence Bahrain Gor got his surname; and Gor
means a wild ass ; through it the inhabitants of Tabaris-
tan have been called Goriyah, and for the same reason a
bold and courageous man is called Gor-mardan, i.e. the
wild ass of men ; likewise the Arabs call a courageous
man "Ram of the tribe" and compare him with the
stallion and the male camel kept for breeding, and with
THE PROPHECIES OF THE' PROPHETS ABOUT THE PRO-
PHETMAY GOD BLESS HIM AND THEM, AND SAVE
HIM AND THEM.
I HAVE already mentioned four prophecies about Ishmael
peace be with him which contain testimonies to the
truth of the religion of the Prophet may God bless and
save him which only the ignorant ignore and the stupid
deny. If the Prophet may God bless and save him
had not been sent, these prophecies would have been
vain and inexplicable. I shall mention from other pro-
phecies of the prophets peace be with them those
which are as clear as something seen with one's own
eyes. Some of them have indeed described his time, his
country, his mission, his followers, his Helpers^ and have
clearly mentioned him by name.
The fifth prophecy alluding to him and pointing to
his prophetic office and to his truth, is the saying of
Moses peace be with him to the children of Israel,
found in the eleventh chapter of the fifth and the last
Book of the Torah : " The Lord your God will raise up
from the midst of you, and from your brethren, a Pro-
phet like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken." 1 And
the Torah said, in this same chapter,' in confirmation and
explanation of this saying, that the Lord said to Moses
peace be with him " I will raise them up a Prophet
from among their brethren, like unto thee ; and whoso-
ever will not hearken unto my words which that man
shall deliver in my name, I will avenge myself on him." 2
And God has not raised up a prophet from among the
1 Deut. xviii. 15. 2 Deut.. xviii. 18-19.
86 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
brethren of the children of Israel, except Muhammad-
peace be with him ; the phrase " from the midst of them "
acts as corroboration and limitation, viz. that he will be
from the children of their father, and not from an avun-
cular relationship of his. As to the Christ peace be
with Him and the rest of the prophets may God bless
them they were from the Israelites themselves ; and he
who believes that the Most High God has not put a
distinction between the man who is from the Jews them-
selves, and the man who is from their brethren, believes
The one who might claim that this prophecy is about
the Christ peace be with Him would overlook two
peculiarities, and show ignorance in two aspects; the
first is that the Christ peace be with Him is from the
children of David, and David is from themselves, and
not from their brethren ; the second is that he who says
once that the Christ is Creator and not created, and then
pretends that the Christ is like Moses, his speech is contra-
dictory, and his saying is inconsistent. Similarly wrong
would he be who would pretend that this prophecy is
about Joshua, son of Nun, because Joshua is not counted
among the prophets, and has delivered nothing on behalf
of God to the children of Israel, but what Moses peace
be with him had already delivered, and also because he
is from themselves, and not from their brethren.
Therefore, the prophet that the most High God "has
raised up from their brethren " is Muhammad may God
bless and save him and whosoever contradicts him God
will wreak vengeance upon him. You see already dis-
tinct traces of vengeance upon those who have rejected
him, and clear marks of grace upon those who have
And Moses said in the twentieth chapter of this
Book : " The Lord came from (Mount) Sinai, 1 and rose
up from Seir, and appeared from Mount Paran, with
1 In Arabic " Sinln," as in the Kur'an xcv. 2,
PROPHECIES OF MOSES 87
tens of thousands of saints at His right hand. He gave
them (power), and made them to be loved by nations,
and called blessings on all His saints." 1 Paran is the
land which Ishmael peace be with him inhabited ; for
this reason God had previously mentioned it in the
Torah, saying " And he learned archery in the wilder-
ness of Paran.*' 2 All people knew that Ishmael dwelt in
Maccah, and his children and successors who are in it
and around it know the abode of their grandfather, and
do not ignore his land and his country ; and " the
Lord " rose up from Paran ! If this is not as we have
mentioned, let them show us "a lord " who appeared
from Mount Paran ; and they will never be able to do
so. The name "lord" refers here to the Prophet
may God bless and save him ; it is a word applied by
Arabs and non-Arabs to the Most High God, or to men,
His servants, as if you would say " the lord of the house"
and as the Syrians call the man whom they wish to
exalt : Man = ''my lord," "my master," war meaning in
1 Deut. xxxiii. 2-3. 2 Genes, xxi. 20-21.
THE PROPHECIES OF DAVID ABOUT THE PROPHET MAY
GOD BLESS AND SAVE BOTH OF THEM.
AND the prophet David peace be with him said in the
forty-fifth psalm : " Therefore God hath blessed thee for
ever ; gird then thy sword, O giant, because thy majesty
and thy Hamd are the conquering majesty and Hamd. 1
Ride thou on the word of truth and on the course 2 of
piety, because thy law and thy prescriptions are associated
with the majesty of thy right hand ; 3 and thy arrows are
sharp, and the people fall under thee." 4 We do not
know anyone to whom the features of girding a sword,
sharpness of arrows, majesty of the right hand, and fal-
ling down of people under him, are due, except the
Prophet may God bless and save him who rode on
the word of truth, humbled himself before God in de-
votion, and fought the idolaters until the true faith
And David peace be with him said in the forty-
eighth psalm : " Great is our Lord, and He is greatly
Mahmud ; and in the city of our God and in His moun-
tain, there is a Holy One and a Muhammad;* and
the joy hath come to thf vvhole earth. " 6 This prophecy
1 This is more in accordance with the East Syrian version which
repeats twice the word " glory."
3 Syr. " meekness."
3 Syr. " Thy law is in the fear of thy right hand."
4 Ps. xlv. 2-5.
5 A not very natural rendering of a Striae sentence meaning " In the
city of our God and in His holy and glorious mountain." Strictly speak-
ing, however, it can have the meaning given to it by the author. See
below, p. 131.
8 Ps. xlviii. 1-2.
PROPHECIES OF DAVID 89
of David peace be with him is clearness and explicit-
ness itself which cannot suffer any ambiguity. David has
indeed mentioned the Prophet by name.
And David peace be with him said in the fiftieth
psalm : " God hath shown from Zion a Mahmud crown.
God then shall come and shall not be idle ; and fires
shall devour before Him, and they shall be very tempes-
tuous round about him." 1 Do you not see that the pro-
phet David peace be with him does not strip from any
of his prophecies the mention of Muhammad or Mahmud,
as you read it yourselves ? His saying " a mahmud
crown " means that he is a Muhammad and a mahmud
head and leader. The meaning of " Muhammad/* <c Mah-
mud," and "Hamid" is linguistically identical. The
example of "crown" is given to mean lordship and
And he said, too, in the seventy-second psalm, in con-
firmation and corroboration of the preceding prophecies :
"He shall have dominion from sea to sea, and from the
rivers unto the end of the earth. They that dwell in the
islands shall bow before him on their knees, and his
enemies shall lick the dust. The kings of Tarshish and
of the isles shall bring him presents, and the kings of
Sheba and the kings of Seba shall offer gifts. All kings
shall fall down before him, and all nations shall (obey
him and) submit to him. 2 For he shall deliver (the per-
secuted and) the needy from him who is stronger than
he, and he shall look after the weak who has no helper.
He shall have mercy for the weak and the poor, and
shall save their souls from harm and violence ; and
precious their blood shall be in his sight. And he shall
remain, and to him shall be given of the gold of the
countries of Sheba ; and prayer shall be made for him
continually, and daily shall he be blessed, like a great
quantity of corn, on the surface of the earth ; and he
shall make his fruits grow on the top of the mountains,
1 Ps. 1. 2-3. 2 Syr. " Shall fear," or : " worship him."
90 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
like those which grow on the Lebanon; and he shall
make something like the grass of the earth to shoot up
in his town ; and his memory shall endure for ever ; his
name exists before the sun, and all nations shall be
blessed by him, and all of them shall give him Hamd"
(or : " call him Muhammad"). l
This is an efficient and sufficient prophecy, in which
there is no ambiguity and difficulty. We do not know
anyone who reigned from sea to sea, and from the
rivers which God has mentioned in the Torah : Tigris,
Euphrates, Pison and Gihon, and before whom kings
bowed on their knees, and whose enemies licked dust,
and to whom the kings of Yaman brought presents,
except the Prophet may God bless and save him and
his nation, and except Maccah and the traces of Abraham's
steps which it contains.' 2 And we do not know any-
one who is blessed and prayed for continually, except
Muhammad may God bless and save him in the
following saying of the believing nations : " O God, pray
over Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, and bless
Muhammad and the family of Muhammad." Which sign
is more obvious and which prophecy is clearer and more
luminous than this, especially when the prophet David
peace be with him closed his prophecy by saying " And
all nations shall be blessed by him and call him Mu-
hammad ? ; " and the meaning of Muhammad and Mahmud
And David peace be with him said in the hundred
and tenth psalm : "The Lord is at thy right hand, and
He shall strike through kings in the day of His wrath ;
(He shall weaken the prop of the kingdom), and shall
judge among them in justice. 3 He shall multiply the
1 Ps. Ixxii. 8-12, i.e. " shall praise him.' 1
3 Allusion to the traditional Makam IbrdHim containing the " stone
which, yielding under the weight of Abraham, bears the impression of his
foot. It is situated close to the Ka'bah.
8 The Syriac is : " He shall judge the Gentiles."
PROPHECIES OF DAVID 91
(dead bodies) and the corpses, and shall cut off the heads
of many people in the earth, and shall drink in his journey
from (the water of) the valleys ; therefore, His head shall
be lifted up (to the heights)." l This is also a description
as clear as something seen with the eye. Who is the
one at whose right hand the Lord was, who judged in
justice, who cut off heads, and who multiplied dead
bodies and corpses, except him may God bless and save
him and his nation ?
And he said, too, in the hundred and forty-ninth
psalm : " For the Lord hath taken pleasure in His people,
and hath beautified the poor with salvation ; let the saints
be strong in glory, and sing to Him in their beds, and
praise God with their throats; because in their hands is
the two-edged sword, to execute vengeance upon the
heathen, and punishment upon the nations to bind their
kings with chains, and their exalted ones (and nobles)
with fetters, to bring them to the written (and decided)
judgment. Hamd to all His saints." 2 Do you not see
may God guide you that these peculiarities refer ex-
clusively to the Prophet may God bless and save him
and to his nation ? It is he who has the two-edged
sword with him, it is he who with his nation has executed
vengeance upon the giants of Persia and the tyrants oi
the Greeks and others, and it is he whose followers have
bound the kings with chains, and conducted their nobles
and their children in chains and fetters, and who sing tc
God in their beds, and glorify Him morning and evening,
and continually, in saying: "God is supremely great
and much praise be to God."
And he peace be with him said in the hundred anc
fifty-second psalm which is a psalm attributed to Isaiat
peace be with him mentioning the Arabs and theii
country, and not leaving any room for reply and excuse
" Let the wilderness and the cities thereof rejoice, anc
1 Ps. ex. 5-7. a Ps. cxlix. 4-9.
92 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
let (the land of) Kedar become meadows. Let the in-
habitants of caves sing, and shout forth from the tops of
the mountains the Hamd of the Lord, and declare His
praises in the islands. For the Lord shall come forth as
a mighty man, and as a man of war, stirring up for pride.
He shall rebuke, shall be mighty, and shall kill His
enemies." 1 To whom does the wilderness belong, O my
cousins may God guide you except to this nation?
And who is Kedar, except the descendants of Ishmael
peace be with him who inhabit caves, and give Hamd
to the Lord and declare His praises at daybreak and at
midday ? And who is he who rebuked, became mighty,
and killed his enemies, except Muhammad may God
bless and save him and his nation ? As to the meaning
of David's saying "The Lord shall come forth/' we have
demonstrated above that the name " Lord " refers to men
of high standing and noble.
1 Isa. xlii. 11-13. These verses with Exod. xv. 1-21 and Deut. xxxii.
1-43 are incorporated with the psalter in the East Syrian or Nestorian
breviary (Breviarium Chaldaicum, Paris, 1886, vols. i., ii., iii., pp. 332-337).
THE PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH ABOUT THE PROPHET MAY
GOD BLESS AND SAVE HIM.
HE said in the second chapter of his book : " The Lord
will be mighty in that day and lifted up alone over all the
pine-trees of Lebanon that are high and elevated, and
over all the oak-trees which are in the land of Bashan,
and over all the high mountains, and over every hill that
is lifted up, and over every lofty tower, and over every
inaccessible mountain, and over all the ships of Tarshish,
and over all pleasant and handsome imagery. He will
destroy the idols in an open destruction, and (people)
will hide in the caves of the rocks and in the holes of the
earth, from the terror of God the Most High, and from
the glory of His Hamd." l Isaiah is in accordance with
the prophet David peace be with both of them who
said : " Thy majesty and Thy Hamd are the conquering
Hamd." 2 It is as if these two prophecies were two rays
coming from a single reflecting centre. As to the moun-
tains and trees, they mean men of high and low estate,
and kings ; instances for this are numerous in their
In the third chapter, he said on behalf of the Most
High God : " I will lift up an ensign to the nations from
a remote country, and hiss unto them from the ends of
the earth, and they will come swiftly and quickly ; they
will not be weary, nor will they stumble ; they will not
slumber, neither will they sleep ; they will not loose the
girdle of their loins, and the latchet of their shoes will
not be broken. Their arrows are sharp, and their bows
1 Isa. ii. 12-19. 2 Cf. supra, p. 88.
94 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
are bent ; and their horses' hoofs are like flint in solidity,
and their wheels are as swift as whirlwinds ; and their
roaring is like that of lions, and like that of a young lion
roaring for a prey, and no one can escape him. In that
day he will overtake them like the roaring and the
colliding waves of the sea ; and they will look unto the
earth, and they will only see distress and darkness ;
and the light shall be darkened from the dust of their
This is the saying of the Most High God. And the
children of Ishmael peace be with him the nation of
the Prophet may God bless and save him are those
for whom God hissed ; and they came from their country
with haste, without weariness and sloth ; their arrows
were sharp, and their bows bent ; the hoofs of their
horses were like rock and flint, and their roaring was like
the roaring of lions ; it is they that had prey from East
and West, and no one could escape them. The giants
became like lambs with them, and dust was stirred by
their onslaught, while paths and defiles were too narrow
And he peace be with him said in the fifth chapter,
in explanation of his preceding prophecies : " The nation
which was in darkness saw a resplendent light, and those
that were in deep darkness and under the shadow of
death, light hath shined upon them. Thou hast multi-
plied partisans and followers of whom thou wast proud.
As to them, they joy in thy hands, like those who joy in
the day of harvest, and like those who joy at the division
of spoils. Because thou hast broken the yoke which had
humbled them, and the staff which was on their shoul-
ders ; and thou hast bruised the rod which had enslaved
them, as thou hadst broken those whom thou didst break
in the day of Midian." 2
This resembles the description which the Most High
God gave in the Kur'an about the Prophet may God
1 Isa. v. 26-10. 2 Isa. ix. 2-4.
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 95
bless and save him saying : " And he will ease them of
their burden and of the yokes which were upon them/' l
See may God guide you and examine who is he who
has broken the yoke from the children of Ishmael,
destroyed the power of the enemies, and bruised the rod
of the mighty. Has that light shone on anyone except
on the dwellers in that dark desert of the pagan posterity
of Ishmael ?
And he said in this chapter : " Unto us a child is
born, and unto us a son is given, whose government is
on his shoulder." 2 He means by that "his prophecy is
on his shoulder/' All this is according to the books
of the Syrians which Marcus has translated ; but in
Hebrew it is said " The sign of prophecy is on his
shoulder/' 3 This is what the Muslims call " the seal of
prophecy." This is, therefore, a clear allusion to the
portraiture of the Prophet may God bless and save
him and a reference to his face and his moles." 4
And he said in the tenth chapter, enlightening what
was obscure and explaining what was difficult in his
prophecies : "Thou wilt come from the country of th,
South, 5 from a remote country, and from the land of the
desert, hastening and passing through like tempests and
storms from the winds. We have seen a grievous and
dreadful vision ; the treacherous dealer dealeth treacher-
ously, and the spoiler spoileth. Go up, O mountains of
Elam, and mountains of Media. 6 All the object of your
desire and of your dispute hath ceased. Therefore is my
1 Kur. vii. I 56. 3 Isa. ix. 6.
3 The Hebrew also has " government " TWD .
4 Cf. Ibn Taimlyah's al-Jawab us-Sahih ii. 211, The seal of pro-
phecy is well described by I.S. i., ii. 131.
5 The author is playing here on the Arabic word tayammana, meaning
to go to Yaman, or in the direction of the right hand, i.e. for the Northern
Arabs : Yamanwards or southwards.
6 In the text Mahln (about which see Tab. i. 2627, 2632, etc.) ; this
bears out the generally accepted opinion that " Mah " is to be identified
with " Mede? See also p. 137.
96 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
loin filled with pain, and I feel the pangs of a woman in
travail. I am pained, so that I cannot hear, and I am
dismayed, so that I cannot see. My heart fainteth, and
dim-sightedness hath affrighted me. What I loved as
agreeable and pleasant has become terrifying and as
something dreadful. Prepare ye then the tables ; and
ye who watch and spy lift up your eyes, and eat and
drink. Let the princes and the leaders rise up to their
shields. Let them anoint them with ointment, for thus
hath the Lord said unto me : ' Go, and set the watchman
on the watch, to declare what he seeth.' And what he
hath seen was a pair of horsemen, one riding on an ass,
and another riding on a camel ; and he hath heard great
and long speech. And the watchman told me secretly
and said in my ear : ' I am the permanent Lord, and I
stand continually upon the watch tower and the high
place of vision, day and night* While I was in that
condition, behold, one of the horsemen approached, say-
ing : * Babylon is fallen, is fallen, and all the graven
images of her gods are broken unto the ground. That
which I have heard from the mighty Lord, God of Israel,
have I declared unto you/ " l
This, too, is a clear and obvious prophecy which only
the man who deceives himself and throws away his
intelligence can reject. As no reasonable man dares
feign ignorance and say that there was in the world a
rider on an ass more appropriate to this prophecy than
the Christ peace be with Him so also no man with
sound judgment and intelligence is allowed to say that
there was in the world a rider on a camel more appro-
priate to this prophecy than the Prophet may God bless
and save him and his nation. 2 Are not the men of
intelligence and science amongst the People of the Book
ashamed to attribute such a clear and sublime prophecy
to some rude and barbarous people ?
1 Isa. xxi. i-io. 2 Cf. Ibn. Taimlyah's Jawab (ibid.).
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 97
The prophet Isaiah has explained his saying, and has
not left them in blindness, and has opened their deaf
ears, in adding : " Thus saith the Lord, thou wilt come
from the country of the South ( = of Yaman)." Then he
explained that by saying : " From a remote country, and
from the land of the desert/ 7 in order that no objection
may be left to the adversary. Then he added, saying
"The gods of Babylon are fallen, are fallen, and have
been destroyed. " Now, there were incessantly in the
country of Babylon kings who worshipped now idols,
now fires, till the appearance of the Prophet may God
bless and save him who destroyed their might, pulled
down the temples of their idols and their fires, and
brought them into his religion either of their free will or
by force. Did not the adversaries feel abashed in saying
that the rightly guided prophets, of the family of Isaac
peace be with them prophesied about the kings of
Babylon, Media, Persia, and Khuzistan, 1 and neglected
to mention such an eminent Prophet and such a great
and Abrahamic nation, and such a victorious Empire, or
that God had hidden and concealed such a nation from
As to his saying " I saw a treacherous dealer dealing
treacherously," he designates by it Persia, Khuzistan, and
the land of Nabatia, which he has mentioned in saying to
them " Go back unsuccessful to your countries, and retire
like banished and plundered people.' 72
And he said in this chapter : " In the forest which is
on the way to Duranim 3 shall ye lodge in the evening.
O inhabitants of the South, welcome with water him that
is thirsty, and receive with food the scattered and dis-
persed people ; because the sword hath scattered them ;
and their dispersion was from sharp spear-heads, bent
1 Country extending between Ahwaz, Basrah, and Ispahan ( Yakut >
2 See below about Isa. xxiv. 16-18. The sentence is misplaced.
3 According to the Peshitta reading.
98 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
bows, and a grievous and fierce war." 1 Who are these
thirsty people who came forth from the direction of
the South, whom the Most High God has ordered the
inhabitants of the country to meet ? Or who are the
peoples expatriated and scattered by war ? And who are
those whom God hath commanded to receive with water
and food, except the Arabs, when they rose to fight
against the neighbouring nations, Persians, Greeks, and
others, who separated them from water and pasture ?
And he said in the eleventh chapter : " From the
ends of the earth have we heard song and hymn to the
righteous and the pious, saying : ' A secret to me, a
secret to me/ 2 and saying 'Woe is me; the treacherous
dealers have dealt treacherously; yea the treacherous
dealers have dealt treacherously. I am surrounding you,
o inhabitants of the earth, with fear, pit, and snare ; and
he who fleeth from war shall fall into the pit ; and he
who cometh up out of the pit shall be taken in the snare,
for the doors of heaven are open, and the foundations of
the earth shake and tremble/ 13 This is according to the
translation of Marcus, while the Hebrew, which is the
original, says "We have heard, from the ends of the
earth, the voice of Muhammad" * And Maccah is in the
ends of the earth, and on the sea-shore. Let them tell
us when and in what generation have the polytheists and
the unbelievers suffered such terrors, punishments, and
calamities such as those they have endured under this
Arab Empire ?
1 Isa. xxi. 13-14. Evidently the author did not consult the Hebrew text
where there is very probably a clear mention of Arabia, which is missing in
2 Possibly a literal translation of the Syriac expression Raz li, mean-
ing figuratively "woe is me."
3 Isa. xxiv. 16-18.
4 There is no such a thing in the Hebrew Massoretic text. The only
difference between the Syriac and the Hebrew texts is that the former has
" the force of the righteous" while the latter exhibits "glory to the
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 99
And he said in the sixteenth chapter, explaining the
preceding prophecies, and rebuking men of obstinacy and
delusion : " Let the inhabitants of the arid desert rejoice,
and let the wilderness and the desert be glad ; let them
blossom like the autumn crocus, and let them rejoice and
flourish like a mountain goat, because they will be given
by Ahmad the glory of Lebanon, 1 and something like the
excellency of watery meadows and luxuriant gardens.
And they shall see the glory of Allah may He be
exalted and glorified and the excellency of our God/' 2
Do you not see may God guide you in this prophecy
that Isaiah peace be with him has given to you
and which the Revelation has mentioned the Arabian
deserts and wildernesses, and the freshness, brightness,
and honours prepared for them by Ahmad peace be
with him ? Does any doubt still disturb you, after he
has mentioned him by name and described the dry
And he said in the nineteenth chapter, adding more
light and clearness: " Someone cried in the wilderness
' Prepare the way for the Lord, and make straight in
the desert the way for our God. All the valleys shall
be filled with water, and they will overflow; and the
mountains and the hills shall become low; and the
hillocks shall be levelled, and the rough ground shall be
plain and smooth ; and the glory of the Lord shall be
rtvealed, and everyone shall see it, because the Lord
hath said it.' " 3 Do you know may God guide you a
na ion which God has called from the desert and the
wi derness, and to which He has made the rough places
straight, the sterile lands fertile, and the dry land rich
with pasture ; to which He has made the valleys over-
flow with water, for their thirsty ones ; and to which He
has subjugated the giants and the kings whom He has
1 The Syriac is simply " And in glory it (i.e. the desert) will be given
the honour of Lebanon."
3 Isa. xxxv. 1-2. 3 Isa. xl. 3-5.
ioo BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
represented by the above hills and mountains except this
Arab nation for which the Tigris became like a beaten
track ? When they reached it, they said unanimously :
"He who has protected us on land will also protect us
on sea ; " then they crossed it, while on the other side
were Chosrau and his warriors and Marzubans ; l they
despised him, and they did not recoil from him when
they were half naked, barefooted, and protecting their
heads with nothing but their wrists.
And he said in this chapter : " The Lord God will
appear with might, and His arm with strength and
power. His reward is with Him, and His work before
Him, like the shepherd who shepherds his flock ; and He
will gather His sheep with His arm, and carry them in
His bosom, and He will feed Himself those that give
suck/' 2 We have already proved in what has preceded,
and in our book of Reply to the Different Denomina-
tions of Christians that the words "God" and "Lord"
are applied also to men. This prophecy corroborates
this statement, since Isaiah declared that the "Lord
God " was a man whose reward was with him, and his
work before him. He alluded by this to the Prophet
may God bless and save him because it is he whose
reward was before him, and it is he who freely distri-
buted his presents and gifts to the fighters for God's
sake, from the spoils of the successes and victories which
accompanied him. His saying " He is like the shepherd
who shepherds his flock," is a figure of the tenderness
of the Prophet may God bless and save him and his
gentleness towards his co-religionists ; because the Most
High God says about him may God bless and save him
"Now hath an Apostle come unto you from among
yourselves ; your iniquities press heavily upon him. He
is careful over you, and towards the faithful, com-
1 High dignitaries. The above saying is (curiously enough) reported
by Michael the Syrian (ii. 423 edit. Chabot).
a lsa. xl. lo-n.
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 101
passionate, merciful/' 1 And the Most High God said to
Moses peace be with him " I shall make thee a god to
Pharaoh." 2 And it is said in the Torah : " The sons of
the Most High God saw the daughters of men that they
were fair and handsome, and they took them as wives/' 8
And the prophet David may God bless and save him
said: "The Lord said to my Lord/' 4 In all these
passages it has been demonstrated that the two words
" God " and " Lord " were applied to men.
And Isaiah peace be with him said in this chapter :
" Who hath raised the Pious One 5 from the East, and
hath called him to his foot, in order to give him the
nations, and to awe by him the kings, and to make his
swords as abundant as dust and earth, and his bows as
numerous as disseminated sheaves ? He shall overcome
them and strike them in the face ; then he shall bring
forth peace ; and shall not set off for a journey on foot." 6
This is similar to what the Most High God has said in
the Kur'an. About his saying " Who hath raised the
Pious One from the East/' the land of Hijaz, and that of
'Irak, with their neighbourhood, are to the inhabitants of
Syria, east ; and Syria, to the inhabitants of Barkah and
of Ifrikiyah is east; and the land of Yaman and that of
Hijaz are called by the learned men, south. The one
41 called to the foot " of the " friend of God " 7 is the
Prophet may God bless and save him and it is to him
that God has given the nations ; and it is by him that He
has scolded the kings, and they were awed ; and it is he
whose archers and sword-bearers are innumerable ; and
it is by him that God has struck the nations in the face,
1 Kur. ix. 129. The author's book mentioned above seems to be
identical with the one mentioned below (p. 107) under the title : Book of
Reply to Christians.
2 Exod. vii. i. 3 Genes, vi. 2.
4 Ps. ex. i. 5 The Syriac version has "piety."
6 Isa. xli. 2-4.
7 i.e. Abraham. The author alludes here also to the Makam Ibrahim
found in the Ka'bah of Maccah. (See above, p. 90.)
102 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
has defeated and humbled them, and then has brought to
them faith, which is Islam, and peace, as the Most High
God says through the prophet Isaiah peace be with
And he said in the twentieth chapter : " O family of
Abraham, my friend, whom I have strengthened ! I have
called thee from the ends of the earth, and from its
plateaus and elevated places ; I have called thee and said
to thee : Thou art my servant, and I have chosen thee ;
and I have not made a secret of it. Fear thou not, for I
am with thee, and be not dismayed, for behold I am thy
God. I have strengthened thee, then I have helped thee,
and with my strong and righteous hand I have upheld
thee ; for that, they that have the advantage over thee
shall be ashamed and confounded ; and they that fight
and oppose thee shall be as nothing and shall disappear,
and the people who resist thee shall perish. Thou shall
seek them, and shalt not find any trace of them, because
they shall cease and they shall be as something forgotten
before thee ; for I, the Lord, have strengthened thy right
hand. I said unto thee, Fear not, because I am thy
help ; and thy redeemer is the Holy One of Israel, saith
God the Lord. I have made thee a sharp threshing
instrument which thresheth all that is under it, and
beateth it thoroughly. Thou shalt do likewise ; thou
shalt make the mountains low and thresh them, and thou
shalt make the towns and the hills as chaff that winds
shall carry away and whirlwinds shall scatter ; and thou
shalt rejoice then and rest in the Lord, and become
Muhammad 1 in the Holy One of Israel." 2
This is a living prophecy, a saying clear and not
difficult, distinctly and not ambiguously worded. The
man spoken to is from the family of Abraham and from
the descendants of Ishmael, who are represented by a
pestle which triturates and a threshing instrument which
pounds the mountains in the name of the God of Muham-
1 Syr. Thou shalt be glorified." 3 Isa. xli. 8-16.
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 103
mad whom He has mentioned by name, in saying " He
shall become Muhammad in the Most High God." Truth
has become manifest, and the veil has been withdrawn.
And if a sophist squabbles here, the most he could say
would be that the meaning of the Syriac word is " he
became Mahmud" and not " Muhammad; " but he who
knows the Arabic language and is versed in its grammar
will not contradict us in saying that the meaning of
Mahmud and of Muhammad is identical.
And he said in this chapter : "The poor and the weak
seek water, and there is no water for them ; their tongues
have withered with thirst; and I, the Lord, will then
answer their call, and will not forsake them ; but I will
open for them rivers on the mountains, and will make
fountains flow in the desert ; I will create pools of water
in the wilderness, and will make springs of water flow in
the dry land ; I will grow, in the waste deserts, the pine-
tree, the myrtle, and the olive-tree ; and I will plant in
the arid desert the handsome cypress, that they may all
of them see, and know, and consider, and understand
that the hand of God hath done this, and the Holy One
of Israel hath created it." l O my cousins, how can you
find an escape from this clear and living prophecy ?
What could you say about it after Isaiah mentioned the
countries, described the dry lands, the deserts, and the
wilderness of Arabia, the springs to which God has given
outlet, the rivers which He has caused to flow, and the
different kinds of trees which He has planted therein ?
Then Isaiah mentioned the poor and the thirsty people of
the desert and of Hijaz,- and declared that it is the hand
of the Most High God that has done it. He who rejects
and throws away this prophecy has neither religion, nor
shame, nor fairness. The name of the Prophet may
1 Isa. xli. 17-20.
2 For the linguistic meaning given by Arab writers to the word ffijaz,
see Lammens's Le berceau de V Islam, p. 1 3. It is generally used in the
sense of " barrier."
104 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
God bless and save him having been mentioned in the
preceding prophecy, what have you now left, O ye who
doubt ? And what would be the reasonable and accept-
able excuse for the man who makes himself deaf and
blind with regard to it ?
And he said in the twenty-first chapter : " Let the
beasts of the desert, from jackals to ostriches, honour Me
and exalt Me, because I have given water in the wilder-
ness, and I have made rivers to flow in the country of
Ashimun, in order that My chosen people might drink
from them ; let then My people that I have chosen drink
from them." l He who has doubts about the preceding
prophecies will have no excuse in ignoring, or feigning
to ignore, that the ostriches live only in the wilderness.
He has mentioned the foxes and the ostriches as an
illustration referring to people dwelling in the desert and
the wilderness. He who squabbles about this and tries
to make it ambiguous is on the way to perdition.
And he said in the twenty-second chapter, on behalf
of the Most High God : " I am the Lord, and there is
no God besides Me ; I am He from whom no secret is
hidden ; I declare to (My) servants what hath not been
done, before it is done, and I reveal unto them the events
and the unknown things, and I will do all My pleasure :
calling a bird from the desert and from the far and
remote country." 2 This is the Prophet may God bless
and save him and it is he with whom God was pleased
on account of the diligence which he had shown in
pleasing and loving Him. If the adversaries shout and
quibble, let them tell us where are the deserts and the
waste lands which the Most High God has described,
and who is the man whom He has called, and who
And he said in the twenty-third chapter, speaking to
mankind of the Prophet may God bless and save him
11 Listen, O isles, and understand, ye nations. The Lord
1 Isa. xliii. 20-21. a Isa. xlvi. 9-11.
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 105
hath invested me with majesty from far, and from the
womb hath He made mention of my name. And He hath
made my tongue as a sharp sword, when I was still in
the womb. And He hath hidden me in the shadow of
His right hand. And He hath put me in His quiver as a
chosen shaft ; and He hath kept me close for His secret,
and said unto me * Thou art My servant.' My piety and
my justice are, therefore, before the Lord, truly; and
my works are in the hands of my God, 1 and I became
Muhammad* with the Lord, and in my God are my
strength and my power/' 3 If somebody denies the name
of Muhammad in these verses, let it be then Mahmud ; he
will not find a way to any other objection. It is, indeed,
he whose tongue has been made by God as a sword, and
this tongue is the perspicuous Arabic, which He had hidden
in His quiver for His secret and His divine Economy
which He has revealed ; and it is he who, morning and
evening, says through his community " There is no
strength and there is no power except by God."
And he said in the twenty-sixth chapter what would
enlighten, corroborate, and confirm his preceding pro-
phecies, and spoke to Hagar peace be with her " Sing,
O woman of few children and desolate, and rejoice in
Hamd, O barren ; because the children of the deserted
and the ill-treated have become more numerous than
those of the fortunate and the favourite. And the Lord
said to her, Enlarge the places of thy tents, and stretch
forth the curtains of thy habitations. Spare not, and be
not weak, but lengthen thy cords, and strengthten thy
stakes, for thou shalt spread and extend in the earth, on
the right hand and on the left, and thy seed shall inherit
the nations, and they shall inhabit the desolate and
ruined towns. " 4
1 The author has omitted the words which refer to Jacob and Israel.
2 Syr. " I was glorified." 3 Isa. xlix. 1-5.
4 Isa. liv. 1-4. The Syriac, "shall make the desolate and ruined
towns inhabited. 1 ' The Arabic sentence may also bear this meaning.
io5 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Would that 1 knew what they might say about this
prophecy in which the Most High God has mentioned
both Sarah and Hagar peace be with them and in
which Isaiah peace be with him has described the
tents of the descendants of Hagar. To whom do these
refer and are suitable, but to the children of Hagar and
her posterity ? To whom do the tents and the tent-cords
belong, except to her descendants? You would perhaps
say that the prophet meant by them the Abyssinians and
the Turks, because they also have tents and stakes (!) He
who makes himself so blind as to reject this prophecy is
really blind, having little sight for himself, and rebelling
openly against his Lord ; so much so that the Most High
God has not left them any doubt, but has repeated,
enlightened, and explained His saying.
And, on behalf of the Most High God, he said in the
twenty-eighth chapter : " By Myself have I sworn, and
from My mouth the word of righteousness have I shown
forth, which has no contradiction and change : unto Me
every knee shall bow, and by Me every tongue shall
swear, and they shall say one and all that the grace is
from the Lord." l Which is the community which swears
by the name of God, and who are those who kneel down
to the name of the One God, praise His grace, morning
and evening, and exalt Him and pray to Him as One,
except the Muslims ? As to the Christians, they attribute
grace and merits to the Christ, and say at the beginning
of their prayers at the altars "May the grace of Jesus
Christ be fulfilled on us." 2
And Isaiah prophesied in this chapter revealing the
secrets of the preceding prophecy, and rebuking blind
1 Isa. xlv. 23-24. These verses precede the above quotations in the
Book of Isaiah, but have been cited after them. The same phenomenon
will also occur below, and this would imply that our MS. may be con-
sidered as a transcript from the first draft of the author's autograph.
2 These words are found at the beginning of the Syro-Nestorian liturgy.
See Mtssate juxta ritum Ecclesia Syrorum Orientalium, Mosul, 1901, p.
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 107
and ignorant people. He did not leave the sophist any
excuse nor the obstinate any outlet, for he spoke to
Hagar, saying : " O thou plunged and immersed in pains,
who hast not possessed happiness nor comfort, behold, I
will set thy stones in beryl, and consolidate thy founda-
tions in sapphire, and adorn thy walls with rubies, and
thy gates with carbuncles, and embellish the borders of
thy house with precious stones. All thy children shall
recognise Me there, and shall not deny Me, and I shall
make peace general to thy sons. In righteousness and
justice shalt thou be embellished. Decline then from
oppression and aversion, for thou art safe from them ;
and turn away from humility and lowliness, for they shall
not come near thee ; and whosoever is sent by Me shall
come to thee, and shall dwell in thee ; and thou shalt be
a refuge and a protection for those who dwell and live in
thee." 1 Examine this prophecy may God guide you
since you are intelligent and skilled in controversy, and
see for yourselves, since you are responsible people ; do
you know another " plunged and immersed in pains"
besides Hagar, and does this address suit another one
besides her and her children ? What honour is greater
and higher than the testimony of God, to the effect that
all of them know Him and do not ignore Him, and that
He has made their country a " refuge" and a " protection, "
that is to say an asylum and a place of safety. Maccah
has indeed been built in mosaic work and with the best
stones, and the diadems of kings have been brought into
it. He who has his two ears let him hear my speech
and my advice ; let him ponder over these testimonies
and analogies, let him sit alone with this book and with
my other book entitled Book of Reply to Christians; let
him seek true guidance from God and work for the de-
liverance of his soul, before its condemnation overtakes
He prophesied, too, in this chapter, called and cried,
1 Isa. liv. 11-15.
io8 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
saying: "O those who thirst, come ye to the water and
the watering-place, and he that hath no money, let him
go and take food and drink, and have wine and milk with-
out money and without price." l This prophecy of Isaiah
points to the grants of God to the posterity of Hagar,
the nation of the Prophet may God bless and save him
that they will go, in the world to come, to what the
Most High has promised them: "rivers of wine and
rivers of milk, the taste whereof changes not, and rivers
of wine delicious to those who drink/' 1 Ponder over the
similarity and resemblance which exists between the two
And he said in this chapter : " I have set thee as a
witness to the peoples, a leader and a commander to the
nations, in order that thou mightest call the nations that
thou knewest not ; and the nations that knew thee not
will come to thee in haste and with eagerness, because of
the Lord, thy God, the Holy One of Israel, who hath
made thee Ahmad* Seek ye then what is with the Lord,
and if ye know Him, listen to Him, and when He is near
to you, let the sinner forsake his sin, and the unrighteous
man his way, and let him return unto me that I may
have mercy on him, and let him be converted to our God
whose mercy and goodness are abundant/' 4 He who
ponders over this prophecy and examines it carefully
will not be in need of any other, because Isaiah has
mentioned the Prophet may God bless and save him
by name, and has said "God hath made thee Ahmad."
If the adversary prefers to say " It is not Muhammad,
but Mahmud" we will agree with him, because their
meaning is identical. And the nations came to him in
haste and eagerness, and God made him a leader to
the nations, a caller to God, as Isaiah says, and an
And he said in the twenty-eighth chapter that the
'Isa. lv. I. 2 Kur. xlvii. 16.
3 Syr. "has glorified thee." 4 Isa. lv. 4-7.
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 109
Most High " God looked, and there was no justice, 1 and
it displeased Him ; and He saw that nobody was vin-
dicating the truth ; therefore the Lord wondered at that,
and sent His intercessor, and brought salvation unto him
with His arm, and upheld him with His grace. And he
put on piety as a breastplate, and laid upon his head the
helmet of help and salvation ; and clothed himself with
garments of deliverance to take vengeance upon those
who hated and opposed him. To the inhabitants of the
islands he will pay recompence, so that the name of God
might be feared from the western parts of the earth, and
his glory revered from its eastern parts/" 2 The Prophet
may God bless and save him has put on righteousness
as a breastplate, laid on his head the helmet of help and
salvation, clothed himself with garments of deliverance
and vengeance against the enemies of God, repaid re-
compense to the inhabitants of the islands, and made
manifest the name of God in the Eastern and Western
parts of the earth, the inhabitants of which submitted to
him. Where is your escape from this, and what is your
argument against these prophecies realised through him ?
And how can a man, who has stubbornly contradicted
God and deafened himself towards His revelation and
His call, flee from Him ?
And he prophesied in this chapter about what only
the weak minded people would reject, and the most
ignorant and blind would ignore ; because he again
mentioned Hagar, and spoke to her and to Maccah, the
country of her children, saying : " Arise, and make thy
lamp shine ; for thy time is come and the glory of God is
rising upon thee. For the darkness hath covered the
earth, and fog hath overspread the nations. The Lord
shall shine upon thee, and His glory shall be seen upon
thee. And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and the
kings to the brightness of thy rising. Lift up thy sight
round about and contemplate; they shall all gather
] Or: judgment. 2 Isa. lix. 15-18.
i io BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
themselves together to thee, and they shall make pil-
grimage l to thee. Thy sons shall come to thee from a
remote country, and thy daughters shall be nursed in
canopies and on couches. Thy heart shall be enlarged,
because the sea shall be converted unto thee, and the
armies of the Gentiles shall make pilgrimage to thee, 1 and
thou shalt throng with numerous camels, and thy land is
too small for the files of animals which shall gather to
thee. The rams of Midian and of Ephah shall be brought
to thee, and the inhabitants of Sheba shall come to thee,
and shall tell the favours of God, and shall praise Him.
All the flocks of Kedar shall come to thee, and the lambs
of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee. They shall offer
on My altar what pleases Me, and then I will renew a
Hamd to the house of my mahmadah." 2
This, too may God guide you is a prophecy which
was realised, and a sign which was fulfilled and made
true ; the Gentiles have come to the light of the faith, and
the treasures of the sea have been converted unto this
Muslim nation ; the droves of the nations have gone to
Maccah, and camels of high breed and files of animals
have thronged its population, and the inhabitants of Yaman
and of Sheba have repaired to it. What is more force-
ful and to the point for the enlightenment of the oppo-
nents, is that Kedar and Nebaioth are from the children
of Ishmael peace be with him who dwelt round Mac-
cah and became its possessors and ministers. God has
indeed renewed a Hamd to the house of His mahmadah :
Muhammad may God bless and save him ! If this is not
so, let them then name other than the Prophet may God
bless and save him and other than Maccah; let them
compare his portrait with this description, and model his
characteristics upon those of these prophecies, in order
that the veil may be rent open and truth made manifest.
And he said in this chapter : " Thus saith the Lord,
the inhabitants of the isles shall wait for me, with those
1 Syr. " will come.' 1 a Isa. Ix. 1-7.
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH in
that are in the ships of Tarshish, as they did before. They
shall bring thy sons from a remote country, their silver
and their gold with them, unto the name of the Lord thy
God, the Holy One of Israel, who hath made thee Ahmad 1
and honoured thee. And the sons of strangers shall build
up thy rampart, and their kings shall minister unto thee ;
and thy gates shall be open continually at all times of
night and day, and they shall not be shut ; and the multi-
tudes of the Gentiles shall enter into thee, and their kings
shall be brought captive to thee ; for the nation and king-
dom that will not serve thee shall perish, 2 yea those
nations shall be utterly wasted with sword. Honour
shall come unto thee from the fine pine-tree of Lebanon,
and from its fir-tree, in order that My house may be made
fragrant with it, and the place of My foot glorified with
the abode of My honour. The sons also of them that
afflicted thee shall come unto thee, and all they that
harmed thee and persecuted thee shall kiss the prints of
thy feet. I will set thee for honour for ever, and for
beatitude and joy in all generations. And thou shall suck
the milk of the Gentiles, shalt have a share in the spoils
of kings, and taste from thy raids upon them. Then thou
shalt know that I am the Lord thy Saviour ; because for
brass I will give thee gold, and for iron silver, and for
wood brass, and for stones iron ; and I will make peace
to be thy leader, and righteousness and justice thy might,
and the Lord shall be unto thee a light and a lamp for
Understand, O my cousins, this prophecy, and see who
it is whose rampart has been built by strangers, who has
been ministered unto by mighty ones, to whom kings
have been brought bound and fettered, and who wasted
and destroyed with sword every kingdom and nation
which did not submit to him. Do you know for the foot
of the " Friend of God/' 4 a place mentioned besides
1 Syr. " Glorified thee." 2 Lit. " Its veils shall be scattered. 31
8 Isa. be. 9-19. 4 Allusion to the Kabbah ; cf. pp. 90 and 101.
i J2 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Maccah to which people go in the pilgrim's garb ot
humility, at the door of which they worship, and to which
they repair from the ends of the earth in answer to the
divine call ?
And he said in the twenty-fourth chapter, speaking
also to the Prophet may God bless and save him
" Thus saith the Lord, the Holy One of Israel : He
whose soul was despised and dishonoured, whom the
nations mocked, whom the followers of the ruler
scorned, before him shall kings arise when they see him,
and rulers shall bow down, because the promise of God is
true. It is the Holy One of Israel who hath elected thee
and chosen thee, and it is He who saith : In an accept-
able time have I answered thee, and in difficulties 1
have I helped thee. I have chosen thee and established
thee for a covenant to the Gentiles, and light to the
nations, in order that earth may be made secure by thee.
Thou shalt inherit the heritages of waste places, and thou
shalt say to the prisoners : Go forth and be loose, and to
them that are in prison : Show yourselves and set off, and
feed your flocks in the ways, because in that time your
pastures shall be found in every direction and in every
path. They shall not hunger nor thirst ; neither shall the
simooms nor suns smite them, because their Rahman' 1 is
with them ; even to the springs and the fountains of water
shall he guide them. And he shall make all the mountains
ways and roads to them, and with them they will dis-
pense with paths and beaten tracks. And people shall
come from a far and remote country, these from the
South, these from the sea, and these from the sea of
Sinim. Sing, O heaven, and be joyful, O earth, and break
forth into Hamd, O mountains, for the Lord hath com-
forted His people, and hath pitied the afflicted of His
creatures. " 8
1 Syr. and Hebr. " in the day of salvation."
3 Name given to God in the Iur'an ; it is the Aramaic adjective-
substantive " ragman," meaning " compassionate."
3 Isa. xlix. 7-13.
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 113
This is clearness and not ambiguity, distinctness and
not confusion ; it is an obvious prophecy corroborating
that which precedes it. By my life, it is only the Prophet
and his nation whom the prophet Isaiah peace be with
him has mentioned as being despised and dishonoured,
who inherited the waste places, released the captives from
prisons and bonds, and fed their flocks in the highways,
after the state of siege and the hardships in which the
Arabs lived under Chosrau and Caesar ; and it is only
to them that the mountains became ways and roads.
As to the meaning of his saying "The Holy One of
Israel/ 1 since he was speaking to the children of Israel,
he called God by the name given Him by the children of
And he said in this chapter, a part of which he devoted
to an address to Hagar and to Maccah : " I have graven
thee upon the palms of my hands, therefore thy walls are
continually before me. Thy children shall make haste
and come to thee ; and they shall drive out from thee
them that wished to harm thee and destroy thee. Lift up
thine eyes above and behold : they shall come to thee, and
to the last man they shall gather together to thee. As
I live, saith God, swearing by His name, thou shalt surely
put them on as a garment, and thou shalt be adorned
with crowns as a bride. And thy deserts, thy waste
places, and the land to which they banished thee and in
which they pressed thee, shall be too narrow for thee, by
reason of the great number of their inhabitants and of
them that wish to dwell therein. And they that opposed
thee and swallowed thee up shall flee from thee. The
children of thy restricted fecundity will say to thee *O
desolate woman of little offspring, the countries have be-
come too strait for us; therefore clear ye away, and
remove, that we may extend in their deserts/ Then thou
shalt speak to thyself and say 'Who hath begotten me all
these, while I am lonely, desolate, and a woman of little
offspring, and while I am deserted, grieved, and enslaved ?
114 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Who hath then brought up these to me, and who hath
taken care of them for me ? ' lf l
Is there anything more distinct, precise, lucid, and
luminous than this ? God has sworn by Himelf, and His
oath is true, and His engagement unbreakable that He
will make the nations as garments to be worn by them,
and as an ornament for their decoration ; this is true in
the case of the Arabs and their Maccah, which is adorned
every year with the highest silk brocades and diadems,
and to which the finest pearls and ex-votos are brought
from the house of the Caliphate a and from all the coun-
tries of the Empire ; and who is the owner of the deserts
and waste places, in which he was too narrowly pressed
and to which he was banished, except this nomad and
Hijazic nation ? And who is the woman without protec-
tion, lonely, grieved, deserted and enslaved, to whom God
spoke, except Hagar ? Is there any intelligent and sen-
sible man among the adversaries who would give good
advice to his soul, and pity it ?
And he said in this chapter : " Thus saith the Lord, I
will lift up mine hand upon the Gentiles, and set up a
standard to them ; and the peoples shall bring thy sons
in their hands, and they shall carry thy daughters upon
their shoulders. And kings shall be thy nursing fathers,
and the highest and noblest among their women thy
nursing mothers ; and they shall bow down to thee with
their face toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy
feet ; and thou shalt know then that I am the Lord, and
they that wait for me shall not be ashamed.'* 3
This is also a prophecy which has not been vain and
without object. Nations have indeed brought to Maccah
from the extreme ends of East and West, from Sind
and India, from the countries of the Berbers, and from
the deserts the posterity and the descendants of Hagar
born in their country, and conducted them with pomp to
their home. Their kings, too, and the noblest of their
1 Isa. xlix. 16-21. 2 i.e. Baghdad. 3 Isa. xlix. 22-23.
PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH 115
women nursed the sons and the daughters of Ishmael
peace be with him and the nations bowed down to them
in Maccah, with their face toward the earth in worship,
and giants licked the prints of the foot of Abraham and
of the feet of the Prophet may God bless and save
them in humility, as benediction and devotion.
And he said in this chapter : " Who is this that
cometh from Edom with garments more red than ripen-
ing dates ? l I see him glorious in his garment and his
attire, and mighty on account of his horses and his
armies ; it is I that speak in righteousness, and save the
nations. It is to us an opportune day for exemplary
punishment- The hour of deliverance hath become near,
and the year of my salvation hath come to hand. And I
looked, and there was none to help me ; and I wondered
that there was none to yield to my view ; therefore mine
own arm brought salvation unto me, and confirmed my
foot with fury ; and I have trodden down the people in
mine anger, and I have made their frontiers waste with
my wrath and my fury, and I have buried their strength
under the earth." 2 Examine this also, and be not of the
number of those who doubt.
And Isaiah prophesied in this chapter in addition to
the preceding prophecy, and said on behalf of God : u I
have made thee a name Muhammad ; look then from thy
habitations and dwellings, O Muhammad, O Holy One,
for thou art the Lord, our father and our saviour, and thy
name is from everlasting." 3 This is similar to the pre-
ceding prophecy of the prophet David peace be with
him who said: " His name exists before the sun/' 4 and
to his saying in the psalter : " In His mountain there is a
Holy One and a Muhammad"*
This mention by name is sufficient for the man not
overcome by his stupidity, and the period of whose
1 So the author seems to have understood the Syriac word Busar
(Bozrah). Cf. however, Taj, iii. 42.
2 Isa. Ixiii. 1-6. s Isa. Ixiii. 14-16.
4 Ps. Ixxii. 17, cf. supra p. 90. 5 Ps. xlviii. i, cf. p. 88.
116 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
aberration is not lengthened As to the meaning of the
saying of Isaiah peace be with him that he is a " Holy
One/ 1 the word "Holy" in the Syriac language means
"a just and pure man;" likewise the name of "the
Lord" refers to "lords, 1 ' as we have already demon-
strated He who is not convinced by this prophecy and
does not submit to it will openly contradict the Lord
who has mentioned the Prophet twice by name, so as not
to leave the adversaries in doubt. If a sophist quibbles
and says that the saying of the Most High God " O
Muhammad, O Holy One," refers to the "dwellings"
which He had mentioned, the Syriac text would contra-
dict him, because if " dwellings " were intended, it would
have exhibited "Holy Ones and Muhammads," and it
would not have said "Holy One and Muhammad/' 1
And he said in this chapter : " Go through, go through
the gate, and retrace the way for the nation. Level the
highway, smooth it, and remove the stones from its
footpaths, and lift up a standard and a road-mark for the
people. For the Lord hath made His voice heard by
all that are in the ends of the earth. Say thou to
the daughter of Zion ' The coming of thy Saviour is
near; His reward is with Him, and His work before
Him/ And they shall be called a ' Holy People, redeemed
by the Lord/ and thou shalt be called ' City, whose
power hath been transferred to her by God from her
enemies/ and 'whom her Lord hath not forsaken/" 2
The Arabs are the holy people that the Lord has re-
deemed ; and the city from whose enemies power has
been transferred to her, and who has been avenged, is
Maccah and its inhabitants. This is constant in the
figurative style of the Arabs who say "Ask the city," 3
to mean " Ask the inhabitants of the city."
1 Strictly speaking, the Syriac text yields to the interpretation given
to it by the author, because the word meaning " dwelling " (mediara) is, as
he says, in singular ; but the Hebrew text, by having suffix-pronouns in
the second member of the status constructus^ renders 'Ali's interpretation
improbable. See below, p. 130.
2 Isa. Ixii. 10-12. * Kur. xii. 82.
THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET HOSEA PEACE BE
WITH HIM ABOUT THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS
AND SAVE HIM.
AND Hosea said : " I am the Lord God who have shep-
herded thee in the wilderness, and in a waste and deserted
land, in which are no inhabitants and no human beings/' 1
This prophecy of Hosea resembles the preceding pro-
phecies of Isaiah. We do not know anybody that God
has shepherded in the desert and in a waste land except
the Prophet may God bless and save him.
And in corroboration of his saying, he described in
this chapter the Prophet's nation as glorious and mighty,
to which there was not, and there shall not be a similar
one, having fire burning and kindling before her, and
desolation behind her. The Arab nation is that to which
there was not, and there shall not be a similar one, and
the Prophet is the man that God has brought up and
shepherded in the arid desert and the waste wilderness.
This is a concise prophecy, but sufficient to anyone whom
God has favoured with His guidance. The man whose
shepherd and glorifier is God Himself, and to whom God
testified that there was not, and there shall not be in the
world a nation more powerful and greater than his, is to
be glorified by all men, and his supremacy and merits
must be acknowledged. He who fails to do so is an
opponent of God and in the way of rebellion and error,
since the prophet Hosea peace be with him testified
that the nation to which there was not a similar one is
this Arab nation. Therefore no man of discretion and
intelligence is allowed to ascribe this prophecy to John,
son of Zacharias, or to any community other than that of
1 Hos. xiii. 5.
THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET MICAH ABOUT THE
PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE BOTH OF THEM.
HE said : " In the last days the mountain of the house of
the Lord shall be established in the top of the mountains,
and on the highest summits. And all nations shall come
unto it, and many nations shall flow unto it, saying :
Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord." l
This is clearly a description of Maccah ; it is to it that
many nations go for pilgrimage, repairing and flowing
unto it in answer to the divine call. If somebody quibbles
and says that Micah meant the temple of Jerusalem, how
can he be right when God showed that the event shall
take place in the last days ? The temple of Jerusalem
was standing in the time of this prophet, who indeed
must have prophesied about something which would
take place in the future, and not about something of the
1 Mic. iv. 1-2.
THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET HABAKKUK ABOUT THE
PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE HIM.
IT is similar to the prophecy of Moses peace be with him
and even clearer and more luminous than it, because it
mentions the Prophet peace be with him twice by name.
The prophet Habakkuk peace be with him said : "God
came from the South, and the Holy One from Mount
Paran. Heaven was eclipsed by the resplendence of
Muhammad, and the earth was full of his Hamd. The
brightness of his sight shall be as the light, and he shall
encircle his country with his might. Before him goes
death, and rapacious birds accompany his armies. He
stood and measured the earth, then he beheld the nations
and pondered over them ; and the everlasting mountains
were scattered, and the perpetual hills did bow. The
curtains of the inhabitants of Midian did tremble ; and
he took possession of the everlasting ways. And God
was displeased against the rivers. Thine anger is in the
rivers, and the wrath of thy impetuosity is in the seas.
Thou didst ride on horses, and didst go up on the
chariots of salvation and help. Thou shalt be filled in
thy bows to overflowing, 1 and the arrows shall be
drenched at thy command, O Muhammad. And the earth
shall be cleft with rivers. The mountains saw thee, and
they trembled, and the showers of the torrent passed
away from thee. The abysses gave a sound of fear, and
lifted up their hands in dread and dismay. The sun and
the moon stood still in their course, and the armies
marched at the light of thine arrows, and at the shining
1 This prophetic passage is ambiguously translated.
120 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
of thy spears. Thou shalt subjugate the earth in anger,
and thou shalt tread upon the nations in wrath, because
thou wentest forth for the salvation of thy people, and for
the deliverance of the inheritance of thy fathers." 1
This illuminating and sublime prophecy, about which
there can be no doubt and suspicion, has revealed the
truth, disclosed the secret, withdrawn the veils, and dis-
carded the uncertainties. God has mentioned twice by
name the Prophet may God bless and save him and
has declared that death shall go before him, and rapacious
birds shall accompany his banners, that he shall ride on
horses and bring salvation, and that, at his command, the
arrows shall be drenched with blood. It is he, too, to
whom the sun and the moon stood still in their course,
and the armies marched at the light of his arrows, and
at the shining of his spears ; if it is not the man we have
described, who then can he be ? Are they the captive
and the banished children of Israel, or the peaceful and
submissive Christians ? How can that be, when God has
mentioned the Prophet twice by name in this prophecy,
described his armies and his campaigns, and declared
that he will tread upon the nations and subjugate them
in anger and wrath ? O my cousins, leave obstinacy and
chicanery, swallow the bitterness of truth, awake from
your intoxication, and have right understanding about
God and His just and pious prophets peace and prayer
be with all of them.
1 Hab. iii. 3-13.
THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET ZEPHANIAH ABOUT
THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE HIM.
HE said : " Wait, saith the Lord, for the day in which I
shall rise up to witness. The time hath come to show
forth my determination to gather all the nations and all
the kings, to pour upon them my indignation and my
fierce anger. For all the earth shall be devoured with
my anger and my disapproval. There I will renew to
the people the chosen language, that all of them may
taste the name of the Lord, and serve Him together with
one consent. And in those days they shall bring me
sacrifices from beyond the rivers of Kush." 1
Zephaniah revealed and declared on behalf of God
what his colleagues had delivered. He described the
nation which testifies "that there is no God but one,
without a partner," and the members of which gather
together for His worship and bring to Him sacrifices from
the shores of the Sudan and from beyond the rivers.
And the chosen language is the perspicuous Arabic,
which is neither unintelligible, nor barbarous, nor so-
phistical. It is this language which became common to
the Gentiles who spoke it and were rejuvenated by the
new dispensation that it brought to them.
As to Hebrew, it was already the language of those
prophets. As to Syriac, never did it cross the frontiers
of the country of Syria; neither did Greek cross the
country of the Greeks, nor Persian the city of Iran-
J Zeph. iii. 8-10.
122 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Shahr; 1 but Arabic reached as far as the spot where
dust ends, the deserts of the Turks, and the countries of
Khazar and India.
1 A big city in N.W. of the province of Khurasan about which see Le
Strange's The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, p. 382 seq. That the
Persian language was not spoken beyond this city is historically interesting.
Yakut (iv. 857), however, believes that Iran-Shahr is the name of the
country between Jaihun and Kadisiyah. Cf. the article " Amu-Darya" in
the Encyclopedia of Islam, i. p. 339 seq. In the text Iran-Shahr is pr bably
to be identified with Naysabur (see Le Strange, ibid.).
THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET ZECHARIAH ABOUT
THE PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE THEM
WHICH CORROBORATES THE PROPHECY OF ZEPHA-
NIAH PEACE BE WITH HIM.
14 THE Lord God shall be in that day the king of all the
earth ; in that day He shall be One Lord, and His name
shall be one." 1 This prophecy has been realised, and the
revelation has been fulfilled, and the religion has become
one, and the Lord One, without dualism and Trinity in
Him, without addition of anything to Him, and negation
of any of His divine attributes ; and His name has become
one without any ambiguity or partnership.
And Zechariah peace be with him said also: "In
that day the holiness of the Lord shall be even upon the
bridle of the horse."' 2 The " holiness of the Lord " means
here the name of the Lord and that of His Prophet
peace be with him ; and this name is found to-day on
every dress, habitation, weapon, and the like;. the day
which the Most High God has described is, therefore, the
1 Zech. xiv. 9. J Zech. xiv. 20.
THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET JEREMIAH ABOUT THE
PROPHET MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE BOTH OF
IT is similar to the prophecies of Isaiah and of other
prophets peace be with them and God spoke in it to the
Prophet peace be with him. He said in the first chap-
ter : " Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee ; and
before thou earnest forth out of the womb I sanctified
thee, and I appointed thee a prophet unto the nations.
For whatsoever I command thee thou shalt proclaim, and
thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee. And I am with
thee to deliver thee, saith the Lord. And I have poured
forth my speech in thy mouth ; examine and see, I have
this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms
to root out, pull down, destroy, pulverise, build, and
plant, whom thou pleasest." 1
Jeremiah peace be with him agrees with the pro-
phecies of his colleagues, and corroborates, confirms, and
strengthens them ; he describes the man who poured
forth the word of God from his mouth, and whom God
has empowered to root out nations, destroy nations, pul-
verise nations, and preserve nations. Be satisfied with
this for your knowledge, and take it as a decisive evidence.
May God make Islam to be your religion, and may He
count you in the number of His victorious servants ! A
God-fearing inquirer will never find a way to ascribe this
prophecy to a Christian, a Jew, or to any other.
And he said in the fourth chapter : 4I I will incite
against you from far, O children of Israel, a mighty
nation, an ancient nation, a nation whose language is not
1 Jer. i. 5-10.
PROPHECY OF JEREMIAH 125
understood, and whose men are one and all skilled in
warfare and mighty." 1 The Arab nation is the mighty
nation whose language was not understood by the children
of Israel ; each member of this nation is skilled in warfare
and mighty ; and it is to them that the new language,
mentioned by God through the prophet Zephaniah
peace be with him belongs.
And he said in the nineteenth chapter : " After those
days, I will put my law in their mouths, and write it in
their hearts, and will be their God, and they shall be my
people. And a man shall not need to teach his brother
and his neighbour faith and religion, nor to say to them
4 Know the Lord ; ' for they shall all know Him, from the
least of them unto the greatest of them. Because of that,
I will forgive their iniquity, and will no more remind them
of their sins." 2
The promise of God has been fulfilled, because He has
planted His love in the hearts of the least and the greatest
men of this Muslim community, and has caused their
tongues to proclaim His holy prescriptions and His
praises. Each one of them knows God and believes in
Him : their sons, their daughters, their slaves, and their
bond-servants. You will not find an agriculturist, a sea-
man, a groom, a sweeper, a small child, or a grown-up
man, who could not, after having made his ablutions, read
something from the Kur'an, recite correctly his prayer
alone, and make his profession in God as one, and praise
Him.* It is for this that God has called them His people,
and was pleased to choose them for Himself. These
meanings cannot be ascribed to any other besides the
Muslims. And God is gracious to the worlds ! 4
And he said in the thirty-first chapter : " The Lord
saith : I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their
might and of their power. And against Elam will I rouse
four winds from the four quarters of heaven, and will
1 Jer. v. 15-16. 2 Jer. xxxi. 33-34.
8 Allusion to the Muslim formula. 4 Kur. iii. 146.
126 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
scatter its inhabitants towards all those quarters, until
there shall be no nation where the outcasts and the
scattered ones shall not be found. For I will scatter Elam
before their enemies, and discomfit them before them
that seek their life ; and I will bring evil and fierce anger
upon them, and I will send the sword after them, till I
have consumed them. And I will set my throne in Elam,
and will destroy from thence kings and potentates that
are there. This is the saying of the Lord." 1
Elam is Ahwaz and its dependencies. The prophets
mentioned it while they were themselves in Syria. When
the Persian kings transferred their seat from Persia, they
came and established their residence in Ahwaz and settled
in it ; then, after a long period, they moved to Sawad.' 2
The prophet peace be with him mentioned, therefore,
Elam, because its name embraced all the Empire ; and
indeed, Elam has never experienced general discomfiture
and destruction similar to thtise she has endured through
this Arab Empire. If somebody thinks here of Alexander
and his victory, or of Tubba* and his incursion, what will
make him abandon his opinion and vitiate it, and discard
every doubt from him, is the saying of God may His
name be blessed " I will set my throne in Elam/' that is
to say, in the country of Babylon ; moreover, Alexander
and the Tababi'ah were not related to the belief in God.
There is another wonderful mystery in this prophecy ;
it is that the Most High God has represented by it this
'Abbassid Empire, and the dwelling in the land of 'Irak
of the Caliphs from the family of 'Abbas, by His saying
" I will set my throne in Elam." It is their appanage,
which only the feeble-minded ignore. As to the Umay-
yads, their residence was in Damascus.
If somebody asks about the "throne," I will say that
it means the power of God, and His prophecy which is
3 Jer. xlix. 35-38.
- Country embracing a tract of land wider than that of 'Irak, and
corresponding approximately to the country oi the middle and lower Meso-
potamia with a few towns of the S.W. parts of Persia (cf. Yakut^ iii. 174).
PROPHECY OF JEREMIAH 127
living in the lands of Elam and 'Irak, and in the littorals,
islands, and districts of other countries in which there are
mosques and oratories where hymns and praises are sung
by the inhabitants, at every instant and moment of night
and day. Jeremiah made mention of Elam, because the
kings were in that time related to it, in the same way as
the inhabitants of this country were related to the Persians
in the days of the Persians, and are in our days related to
the Arabs because the Arabs conquered them. As a
proof to my statement that the meaning of " throne " is
"power," is the saying of the prophet David peace be
with him " Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever," 1
i.e. thy power and thy might.
And he said in the thirty-second chapter, speaking to
the Prophet may God bless and save him " Prepare ye
weapons of war to Me, for with thee will I scatter the
nations, and with thee will I scatter the horses and their
riders, and with thee will I scatter the chariots and their
riders, and with thee will I scatter the young among men
and women, and with thee will I scatter the shepherd and
his flock, and with thee will I scatter the husbandman and
his yoke of oxen, and with thee will I scatter the tyrants
and the rulers; and I will punish Babylon and all the
inhabitants of the countries of the Chaldaeans for all the
crimes that they have done; this is the saying of the
God has made this prophecy as a sequel to the pre-
ceding one, to which it is similar, and with which it is
almost identical. He has indeed inflicted on the countries
of the Chaldaeans and of Babylon what He had threatened
them with, and has broken up their composed state of
affairs, defeated their plans, destroyed their divinities, and
revenged Himself on them ; and what a revenge ! And has
destroyed them ; and what a destruction ! It is said that
the kings of Babylon were for a long time related to
Kalwadha, which is near the "City of Peace."
1 Ps. xlv. 6. 1J Jer. li. 20-24.
;i I.e. Baghdad. About Kalwadha see Yakut, iv. 301.
THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET EZEKIEL ABOUT THE
PROPHET PEACE BE WITH BOTH OF THEM.
HE said in the ninth chapter : "Thy mother is planted on
the water in thy blood, and she is like a vine which
brought forth its fruits and its branches, by reason of
many waters. Branches sprang up from it like strong
rods standing high up over the branches of the nobles
and the rulers ; their boughs became lofty and surpassed
all others, and their stature was enhanced by their height
and the thickness of their branches. But that vine was
plucked up in fury, she was cast down to the ground, and
the simooms dried up her fruits ; her strength was
scattered, and the rods of her might withered, and the
fire came and consumed them. Then a plant was planted
in the wilderness, in the neglected, dry and thirsty land.
And fire went out of her lofty rods, which devoured the
fruits (of the first plant) ; so that she had no strong rod nor
a branch to rise up for the power of authority." 1
He who has questioned the preceding prophecy and
quibbled over it, will be silenced and convinced by this
one. God may His name be blessed has told us that
He will extirpate the root of the Jews, destroy the mass
of them, and annihilate their might and their beauty,
which He has compared with the vine, together with its
rods and branches. Then He added an illuminating and
clear saying, when He may He be blessed and exalted
declared that He will plant a new plant in the wilder-
ness, and in the neglected and dry land, the branches of
PROPHECY OF EZEKIEL 129
which shall bring forth a fire which will devour the
branches of the first vine in order that no strong rod and
no branch should be found in it to rise up to power and
authority. The meaning of "rod" and "branch" is
power. 1 And the power of the Jews and their might
have disappeared from the surface of the earth, and another
strong rod, yea, many other strong rods and branches rose
up to a mighty power and a firm and civilised administra-
tion. In that the above prophecy has been realised.
And Ezekiel peace be with him said at the end of
his book that God showed him a house the plan and the
bounds of which an angel was directing. He described
its pillars, its halls, its court-yards, and its doors; and
the angel told him to remember all these and to ponder
over them. But since the description of this house was
too long, I noticed that people either deliberately or
carelessly have believed it to be unintelligible and am-
biguous ; therefore I did not mention it; but on the
evidence of numerous and obvious prophecies and testi-
monies it is clear that the description of the house
that God planned and sketched through the prophet
Ezekiel peace be with him applies to Maccah, because
it contains features which do not fit the temple of Jeru-
salem, built after the return from the deportation to
Babylon. If somebody rejects this, let him put the de-
scription in harmony with the temple built in Jerusalem,
in order that we may believe him ; if he fails, let him
then believe what we have told him and declared to him.
If a contentious disputant rejects what we have said
and pretends that the process whereby I have extracted
the name of the Prophet from the above prophecies is not
right, on the ground that the sentences are not preceded
in Syriac by the vocative particle, the reason being that
when the Syrians use a noun in the vocative form they
1 The Arabic word used means both "branch " and "sceptre."
130 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
prefix to it the vocative particle ya } as the Arabs do, the
following examples shall be his answer :
It is said in the Torah that God called Adam in Para-
dise and said to him, " Where art thou, Adam?" 1 i.e.
O Adam. Simon Cephas spoke to the Jews and said
" Hear my words, men of Israel," 2 i.e. O men of Israel.
In the Book of the Acts it is said that the Christ said to
Paul "Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?" 3 i.e.
O Saul, O Saul. The angel called Hagar and said " Hagar,
Sarai's maid, whence earnest thou?" 4 i.e. O Hagar.
Isaiah said "Seed of my friend Abraham whom I have
strengthened," 5 i.e. O seed. And Isaiah said " Sing,
barren, thou that didst not bear,"* i.e. O barren. And he
said, too, " Seed of evildoers, and children that are cor-
rupters, you have forsaken the Lord and provoked the
Holy One of Israel," 7 i.e. O seed of evildoers and O
children that are corrupters. All these quotations suf-
fice to prove that the vocative is not preceded in Syriac
by aya as in Arabic. 8
As to what the obstinate disputants among the Chris-
tians say about the Syriac word Mshabbha that it is not
Muhammad, but Mumajjad or Musabbah, we may answer
that it is not said to a man "Thou art the praised one,"
nor " Praise be to thee," because this is said only to the
Most High God, who, in many prophecies, said "O
Muhammad/' as I have demonstrated." The adversary
1 Genes, iii. 9. 2 Acts ii. 22. : 'Acts ix. 4.
4 Genes, xvi. 8. f) Isa. xli. 8.
6 Isa. liv. i. 7 Isa. i. 4.
8 The above quotations refer to the Syriac text in which the vocative is
not preceded by O !
9 These three Arabic adjectives although not quite synonymous have
many identical meanings. The main argument of the author is that the
Syriac word mshabbha cannot be translated by the Arabic mumajjad and
musabbah, because these are adjectives applied exclusively to God. This
holds good especially in the Arabic language, but the translation of
Mshabbha by Muhammad is lexicographically correct, with the exception
that the author has built too much on it. So, for instance, when Isaiah
PROPHECY OF EZEKIEL 131
who rejects this and wants to make it ambiguous, may
be asked to say in Syriac " praise be to God ; " he will
express this sentence and translate it invariably by
" Shubha Lalaha;" if Shubha is translated by Hamd,
Mshabbha is, therefore, Muhammad. 1 And the prophet
David peace be with him said, "Thy throne, God, is
for ever and ever," i.e. O God. 2
If this adversary quibbles and is resolute in pre-
tending that Mshabbha is Mumajjad and not Muhammad,
let him tell us who is this Mumajjad, of whom God said
through Habakkuk that " Heaven was eclipsed by the
resplendence of Mumajjad" and " before whom goes
death/' and <l whose armies are accompanied by ra-
pacious birds/' and "at whose command the arrows were
drenched, and the armies marched at the light of his
arrows/' and who " subjugated the nations," and "came
forth for the salvation of his people, and for the de-
liverance of the inheritance of his fathers ; " 3 or of whom
David said " Prayer shall be made for him continually,
and daily shall he be blessed," 4 while this is the saying
of the believing nations : "O God, pray over Muhammad
and the family of Muhammad, and bless Muhammad
says: "Look from thy holy and glorious mountain" (Ixiii. 14-16), the
apologist separates the adjective "glorious" from its substantive "habita-
tion," makes a substantive of " glorious " on the ground that the Syriac
does not require the vocative particle O before the substantive, and finds
in it the name of Muhammad by translating " Look from thy habitations
and dwellings, O Muhammad, O Holy One." In Kastallani's Mawahib
and in Yahsubi's Shifa the word " MushafTah" is one of the names of
Muhammad (see ibid, the Chapter of the Prophet's names, and cf. the
1 Cf. Khamis, i. 206 ; and Goldziher, in Z.D.M.G. 32, 374.
2 Ps. xlv. 6. The author has probably forgotten to place this sentence
in the list of the above quotations, of which it constitutes an integral part,
and this induces us to suppose that the present MS. is a transcript from a
first draft in the author's autograph. The same phenomenon occurs in the
prophecies of Isaiah and in some sayings of the Prophet and the Pious
Caliphs reported above.
:l Habak. iii. 2-12 ; see p. 119. 4 Ps. Ixxii. 14 ; see p. 89,
132 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
and the family of Muhammad." Further, let him tell us
who is he of whom the prophet Isaiah said "I have
established thee a witness to the nations, and a king
and a ruler to the gentiles/' 1 while this is the saying of
the believing nations : "I testify that there is no God but
Allah, and that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah. "
And who would be the Mumajjad, of whom God says
through Isaiah "I have made thee a name Muhammad ;
look then from thy habitations, O Holy One, O Muham-
mad"* If Isaiah meant Mumajjad, who would this
Mumajjad be, except Muhammad? In this there is suf-
ficient admonition, warning, and instruction to the man
whose happiness and instruction are desired by God.
1 Isa. xlix. 8 ; see p. 112. ' 2 Isa. Ixiii. 14-16 ; see p. 115.
THE PROPHECY OF THE PROPHET DANIEL ABOUT THE
PROPHETPEACE BE WITH BOTH OF THEM.
IT corroborates the preceding prophecies of Ezekiel and
others, and confirms our saying that the Prophet may
God bless and save him is the last of the prophets, that
his victory is from God, that he is the owner of the solid
Empire after which there is no other Empire, that there
is no nation similar to his nation, and that all the
prophecies of the prophets which we have quoted are
about him and refer to him, to the exclusion of every
What we find in the prophecy of the prophet Daniel
peace be with him in the first chapter of his Book, is
that he said through the Holy Spirit to Nebuchadnezzar
who had asked him ancnt the interpretation of a vision
which he had seen, without having previously told it to
him : " Thou, O King, sawest a great image whose bright-
ness was excellent, standing before thee. His head was
of pure and fine gold, his forearm of silver, his belly and
his thighs of brass, his legs of iron, and his feet part of
iron and part of potter's clay. And thou sawest that a
stone was cut out without any cutter, which smote the
image upon his feet and pounded them ; then the image
was broken to pieces, with his iron, his brass, his silver,
and his gold, and was broken in pieces like the thin chaff
in the threshing-floors ; and the wind carried it away, and
no trace of it was found. And the stone that smote that
image became a great mountain which filled the whole
earth. This is thy vision, O King. Thou art this head
of gold that thou sawest, and after thee shall arise another
kingdom inferior to thee. The third kingdom resembling
134 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
brass shall bear rule over all the earth ; and the fourth
kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron
breaketh all things in pieces, shall it break everything in
pieces. As to the foot which was part of iron and part
of potter's clay, the kingdom shall be partly strong, and
partly weak; and the union of the kingdom shall be
44 And in those days the God of heaven shall set up an
everlasting and eternal kingdom, which shall not change
nor perish, and which shall not leave to other nations any
kingdom and power ; but it shall break and destroy all
the kingdoms ; as to it, it shall stand for ever. This is
the interpretation of the stone that thou sawest cut out
of the mountain without any cutter, and that brake in
pieces the iron, the brass, and the potter's clay. The
great God hath made known to thee what shall come to
pass at the end of the time/ 11
This is an obvious prophecy and a clear allusion which
does not need further explanation than that of the Prophet
Daniel peace be with him who has verified all the
above prophecies and testified that all of them refer to
Muhammad peace be with him- -and not to another one.
He has told us that the last kingdom and empire will be
the kingdom that the God of heaven shall set up, which
will embrace all the kingdoms of the earth, stand for ever,
and not leave any other kingdom and power without
breaking it into pieces and shattering it. The Prophet
Muhammad may God bless and save him has been
called the last of the prophets, because all the prophecies
did not go beyond him, as you see, and because all the
previous messages have been fulfilled through him, as you
find and read. After him there was no prophecy and no
revelation, because God had declared that no kingdom and
no power shall rise after his kingdom and after his time.
What objection remains, and what error stands with this
prophecy ? What would be, with God, the excuse of the
1 Dan. ii. 31-45.
PROPHECY OF DANIEL 135
man who rejects it? Will he have with Him anything
but torment and fire ? God has said that the " God of
heaven " will set up this everlasting and eternal kingdom.
And Daniel peace be with him said in the fourth
chapter, in confirmation and corroboration of the first
prophecy : " I saw in my vision that the four winds were
stirred up, and that because of them the great sea became
rough and exceedingly stormy. And four great beasts
came out of the sea, different in form. The first was like
a lion, and had eagle's wings, and I saw that its wing
was plucked ; and it rose up, and stood on the earth as a
man, and a man's heart was given to it. And the second
beast was like to a bear, standing on one side, and having
three ribs in its mouth ; and I heard somebody say to it :
Arise, devour flesh, and eat thy fill of it. The third beast
was like to a leopard, which had on both its sides four
wings like the wings of a fowl, and had also four heads;
and dominion was given to it. And I saw a fourth beast,
great, strong, and powerful exceedingly ; and it had great
iron teeth, and devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped
the residue with the feet of it ; and I saw that it was
diverse from the other beasts ; and it had ten horns, the
meaning of which I was considering. 1 And behold there
came up among these horns another little horn, before
which three of the other horns were plucked up and fell.
"Then I wished to know the meaning of the fourth
beast which was diverse from all the others, what it was
and what was the meaning of its ten horns, of its iron
teeth, its brass nails and claws; and what was the
meaning of its devouring, breaking in pieces, and stamp-
ing the residue with its feet ; and what was the meaning
of the little horn which came up from it, before which
three horns fell, and what was the meaning of the eyes
that this horn had. And I heard this horn speaking with
1 The author gives a wrong translation of the Syriac verb istakkal,
which he renders literally by " I was understanding. " When followed by
a baith the verb means " to consider."
136 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
remarkable speech from its mouth ; the growth of this
little horn, its excrescence, and its stature were more
stout than those of the others. And it made war with
the holy saints, and prevailed against them. And the
Lord said to me : The meaning of the fourth beast is that
a fourth kingdom shall rise up upon the earth, which
shall be greater and higher than all the kingdoms. It
shall dominate all the earth, tread it down, break it in
pieces, and devour it completely. And the meaning of
the ten horns is that ten kings shall arise from that king-
dom ; and another king shall arise after them, greater
and stronger than the first ones, who shall subdue three
This is a clear and distinct prophecy, which does not
need more explanation and elucidation than those given
to it by Daniel peace be with him. The fourth beast,
of which he said that it was great, dreadful, terrible,
strong, and powerful, is the image of this Arab king-
dom, about which God said that it shall be the greatest
and the highest of all kingdoms, and that it shall dominate
all the earth, tread it down under its feet, and devour it
completely. It is also the latest kingdom ; and this
testifies to the fact that the Prophet may God bless and
save him is the last prophet ; that all prophecies were
realised through him, ended with him, and did not go be-
yond him. To this all the preceding prophecies pointed
and referred. Blessed is the One who predetermined
this and foretold it to His servants, through His prophets,
prior to its realization, and who, by means of it, brought
in a verdict in our favour, and strengthened our failing
vision to see clearly the weakness of the adversaries'
These are the prophecies of the prophets from the
children of Israel. I shall relate now the prophecies of
the Christ peace be with Him and of His disciples,
after Him. The former have clearly referred to the time
1 Dan. vii. 2-8 ; 19-24.
PROPHECY OF DANIEL 137
of the Prophet peace be with him and distinctly pointed
to it. Those who interpreted the Books of the Christians
said that the first beast was the kingdom of Babylon, as
Daniel said; the second, the kingdom of the Medians;
and the third, the kingdom of the Persians. The fourth
is therefore without doubt the kingdom of the Arabs, the
everlasting kingdom, of which God said that it shall not
perish, and shall not leave any kingdom and power to
another nation. This is a corroboration of the saying of
the prophet Moses peace be with him who, on behalf
of God, said about Ishmael peace be with him " I have
blessed him and increased him exceedingly/' J
I have found also another resplendent and wonderful
prophecy in the Books of Daniel. He says: " Blessed
is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three
hundred and five and thirty days." 2 I have carefully
examined this, and found that it refers to the Muslim
faith, and more especially to this 'Abbasid kingdom ; in-
deed Daniel must have meant by this number either
days, or months, or years, or a prophetic mystery that
arithmetic might discover. If somebody says that he
meant days, the answer is that no joy and no gladdening
event took place after four years, either to the children
of Israel or to the world at large. This will also be the
case after one thousand three hundred and thirty-five
months, because this number gives one hundred and
eleven years, and some months.
If they say that he meant years, the number would
end with this 'Abbasid kingdom, because from the time
of Daniel to that of the Christ there are about five
hundred years. The proof of this is what has been re-
vealed to him that he and his people shall remain seventy
weeks in the deportation, then they shall return to Jeru-
salem, and the Messiah shall be sent 8 And from the
1 Genes, xvii. 20 (cf. supra, p. 77). In the above lines the word used
for Medians is Makin, as in p. 95.
a Dan. xii. 12. 3 Cf. Dan. ix. 24-25.
138 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
time of the Messiah to this year there are eight hundred
and sixty-seven years. 1 This, in counting from our time,
reaches this 'Abbasid kingdom, with a difference of some-
thing more than thirty years. 2 If somebody says that
the prophetic days do not mean years, but a mystery that
arithmetic by alphabet might find out, I thought also of
that, and discovered that the number of these days was
equivalent to the total of the numerical value of the
letters of the words Muhammad Khatimul-Anbia Mahdi
Majid? because if the numerical value of these vocables
is calculated, it will give what we have shown ; and they
are five words.
If somebody says that it is possible that this number
might also be obtained for other persons by the same
arithmetical method as that whereby I found it out for
the Prophet, that which would testify to the veracity of
1 The present Defence was certainly written under the reign of Muta-
wakkil whose murder is fixed on the loth of Dec., 86 1. This apparent
anachronism may possibly be explained by the chronology adopted by the
majority of the ancient Syrian writers in connection with the life of the
Prophet whom they believed to have been born in the year 892 of the
Seleucids, instead of 882 (Barhebraeus, Chron. Arab. p. 160; edit. Beirut).
This would give the Christian date 857 (A.H. 243). Further, it is a well-
known fact that between the Seleucid era adopted in the Syrian Churches
and that followed in the West there are two years of difference, these having
been added by some Western writers to the Eastern computation. If we
take these two years into account we should ascribe the composition of the
present work to A.D. 855 (A.H. 241), or the 9th year of Mutawakkil's cali-
phate. On the other hand, the year of the Hijrah 622 is rightly calcu-
lated by almost all the Syrian historians and fixed at 933 of the Seleucids
= A.D. 622. See Michael the Syrian, ii. 403 (edit. Chabot). As the years
of the Seleucids and not those of the Christian era were used in the
Eastern Churches till about the i6th century, it is even possible to suppose
that the historians of the Court had miscalculated the time that had elapsed
between the birth of Christ and the Hijrah.
2 Prophecy of Daniel: 1335; Daniel's time to that of the author ac-
cording to his own computation: 1367; the difference: 32. For other
attempts to apply this number to Muhammad, see BTruni's Chronology
(edit. Sachau), p. 22.
3 I.e. " Muhammad, the last prophet, the Mahdi, the illustrious."
PROPHECY OF DANIEL 139
what I have said, and ascribe this mystery exclusively to
the Prophet may God bless and save him is the testi-
mony of Daniel and of other prophets for him in the way
I have already demonstrated. We will agree with the one
who would apply it to another name, if this name carries
with it testimonies from the prophets like those included
in the name of the Prophet peace be with him ; but he
will never be able to find such a name. Indeed, some
Christians have attributed this number to the Christ,
through the same method of computation, but I have
contradicted them, and by testimonies from the prophets,
have shown clearly that its attribution to the Prophet
peace be with him is more appropriate than to Christ.
THE PROPHECY OF THE CHRIST ABOUT THE PROPHET-
MAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE BOTH OF THEM.
ON this subject the Christ peace be with Him uttered
a sentence recorded and perpetuated in the Book of the
Apostle John, in the fifteenth chapter of his Gospel :
11 The Paraclet, the Spirit of truth, whom my father will
send in my name, He shall teach you everything." 1 The
Paraclet, then, whom God would send after the Christ,
and who would testify to the name of the Christ peace
be with Him is the One who would teach mankind
everything that they did not know before ; now among
the disciples of the Christ there has not been, down to
our time, a single one who taught mankind anything
besides what the Christ had already taught ; the Paraclet,
therefore, who taught mankind what they did not know
before, is the Prophet may God bless and save him
and the Kur'an is the knowledge that the Christ has
called " every thing."
And John said about Him in the sixteenth chapter :
" If I go not away, the Paraclet will not come unto you.
And when He is come, He will reprove the world of sin.
He shall not speak anything of himself, but will direct
you in all truth, and will announce to you events and
hidden things." 2 John said, too, about Him: " I will
pray my Father to give you another Paraclet who will
be with you for ever." 3
The interpretation of the saying "He will send in
my name," is this : as the Christ was called Paraclet, and
1 Job. xiv. 26 (Syr. The Holy Spirit ")
2 Job. xvi. 7, 8, 13. 3 Joh. xiv. 16.
PROPHECIES OF CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES 141
Muhammad also was called by the same name, 1 it was
not strange on the part of Christ to have said " He will
send in my name/' that is to say He will be "my name-
sake " (or : " my equal, " samt). Indeed, it seldom happens
that the Christ peace be with Him is mentioned in a
chapter of the Books of the prophets peace be with
them without a simultaneous mention of the Prophet
may God bless and save him as adhering to Him and
making one pair with Him, because he came after Him.
When I examined carefully the word " Paraclet," and
searched deeply for the meaning of the saying of the
Christ, I found another wonderful mystery in it; it is
that if somebody counts the total of the numerical value
of its letters, it will be equivalent to the same total as
that of the letters of the words : Muhammad bin 'Abdallah,
an-N abbiyul-Hadi? If somebody says that one number
is missing, because the word is Paracleta? we will answer
that the letter A It/is a paragogical addition to the Syriac
nouns. The words which would exactly be equivalent to
the numerical value of the word, without any addition and
diminution, are Muhammad Rasulun Hablbun Tayyibun.*
If someone says that the same number is obtainable from
other names, this will not be possible for him until he
brings forth, from a scriptural evidence, the man who
would answer to the description given by the Christ in
His saying : 4< The Paraclet whom He will send, the Spirit
of truth whom my Father will send in my name, He shall
teach you everything; " and he will not be able to find a
way for that.
And the disciple John said in his Epistle found in the
Book of the Acts which is the history of the Apostles : 5
1 In the Shifa of Yahsubi " Paraclet " is given as a name of Muham-
mad. (In the chapter of the Prophet's names.)
* I.e. " Muhammad, the rightly guiding Prophet, son of 'Abdallah."
3 According to the Syriac pronunciation.
4 I.e. " Muhammad is a beloved and good apostle."
8 The Bible used by the author incorporated the Acts and the Catholic
Epistles under one title Praxis^ as it is in the Syrian Churches.
142 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
* 'My beloved, believe not every spirit, but discern the
spirits that are of God. Every spirit that confesseth that
Jesus Christ hath come and was in flesh is of God, and
every spirit that confesseth not that the Christ was in
flesh, is not of God." 1 The Prophet may God bless
and save him has believed that the Christ has come,
that He was in flesh, and that He was the " Spirit of God
and His word which He cast into Mary." 2 His spirit,
therefore, is, on the testimony of John and of others, a
true and just spirit, coming from the Most High God,
and the spirit of those who pretend that the Christ is
neither in flesh nor a man is from somebody outside God.
And Simon Cephas, the head of the Apostles, said in
the Book of the Acts: "The time hath come that judg-
ment must begin at the house of God." 3 The interpreta-
tion of this is that the meaning of the house of God
mentioned by the Apostle is Maccah, and it is there and
not at another place that the new judgment began. If
somebody says that he meant the judgment of the Jews,
the answer is that the Christ had already told them that
" There shall not be left in the temple one stone upon
another that shall not be thrown down, and remain in
destruction till the day of the Resurrection." 4
It has become evident that the new judgment
mentioned by the Apostle is the religion of Islam and its
judgment. This is similar to the saying of the prophet
Zephaniah peace be with him who said on behalf of
God : " I will renew to the people a chosen language ; " 6
Arabic was the new and the chosen language for the
new judgment and religion. Daniel, too peace be with
him said in this sense what we have already mentioned.
There was not in that time a house related to God to
which the adversary might cling and say that the judg-
ment began there, except Maccah. If somebody says that
1 1 Job. iv. 1-3. 2 Kur. iv. 169.
* 1 Pet. iv. 17. 4 Matth. xxiv. 2, etc.
*Zeph. iii. 9 (cf. supra, p. 121).
PROPHECIES OF CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES 143
the Apostle meant the Christian religion, how could he
say about a religion and a judgment which had already
appeared for some time : " The time hath come that it
must begin " ? This is an impossible hypothesis.
And the evangelist Luke reports in the eleventh
chapter of his Gospel that the Christ said to His dis-
ciples : " When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and
shoes, were ye harmed and lacked ye in anything?
And they said: No. Then He said: But now he that
hath no purse let him buy one, and likewise a scrip ;
and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and
buy a sword with it for himself/' 1 The laws and pre-
scriptions that the Christ had promulgated and preached
were only submission, resignation, and obedience ; when,
then, at the end of His life He ordered His disciples and
the standard-bearers of His religion to sell their gar-
ments in order to buy swords, men of discernment and in-
telligence know that He referred to another Dispensation,
viz. to that of the Prophet may God bless and save him
in pointing to his swords and his arrows which the
prophets had described prior to His coming.
Simon Cephas unsheathed his sword and drew it out
of its scabbard, in the night in which the Jews seized
the Christ, and struck with it one of the soldiers, and cut
off his ear ; but the Christ peace be with Him took it
with His hand and returned it back to its place in the
soldier's head, and it became immediately as sound as it
was before ; and then He said to Simon : " Put up the
sword into the sheath. He who draws the sword shall
be killed with the sword." 2 In this He referred to the
sword-drawers of His nation and His followers, but He
referred to the Muslim Dispensation when He ordered
His disciples to sell their garments in order to buy
swords ; and swords are not bought except for the sake
of unsheathing them and striking with them.
J Luk. xxii. 35-36.
2 Matth. xxvi. 51-52 ; Job. xviii. 10-11 ; Luk. xxii. 50-51.
144 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
And Paul, the foremost among the Christians, whom
they call an apostle, said in his Epistle to the Galatians :
"Abraham had two sons, the one by a bond-maid, the
other by a free-woman. But he who was of the bond-
woman was like other people, but he of the free-woman
was by promise from God. Both are an allegory for the
two laws and covenants. Hagar is compared with Mount
Sinai, which is in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem
which now is. But Jerusalem, which is in heaven,
answereth to his free wife." 1 Paul has settled many
points by this saying. The first is that Ishmael and
Hagar had inhabited the country of the Arabs, which he
called the countries of Arabia ; the second is that Mount
Sinai, which is in Syria, extends and links up with the
desert countries, since he says that Hagar is compared
with Mount Sinai, which is in the countries of Arabia ;
and Sinai is the mountain mentioned in the Torah at the
beginning of these prophecies : " The Lord came from
Sinai, and rose up from Seir, and appeared from Mount
Paran." 2 In this Paul testified that the Lord, who ac-
cording to the saying of the Torah, came from Sinai, was
the Prophet may God bless and save him and that
it was he who appeared in the countries of Arabia. We
have demonstrated above that the meaning of the word
"Lord 11 refers to " prophets " and to " lords/' What
would be clearer and more distinct than the mention by
name of the countries of Arabia? He meant by this
vocable the country of the Arabs, but he wrote it in a
foreign and unnatural manner, Arab instead of 'Arab*
The third meaning is that Jerusalem answers to
Maccah ; and the fourth is that this second law and this
second covenant are, without any doubt, from heaven.
Paul called both of them by one name, and did not dis-
i Gal. iv. 22-26. a Deut. xxxiii. 2. Cf. supra p. 86.
8 The author refers to the Syriac version where, curiously enough, the
word is written in the Greek way without the strong guttural at the
PROPHECIES OF CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES 145
tinguish between them in any way. As to the supremacy
that he gave to the free-woman, and to his saying that
the son of the bond-woman was not born by promise,
it is one-sidedness and prejudice on his part, because in
the convincing passages of the Torah about Ishmael,
which I have quoted above, there is sufficient evidence
to show that he also was born, not only by one promise,
but by several promises.
These are clear prophecies and established facts, per-
petuated throughout the ages, which, if somebody apart
from the Muslims claims, his only gain will be the dead-
liest arrow and the greatest lie ; this will only be done
by a wretched Jew or a babbling Christian, excusing
with it themselves, and deceiving themselves and others.
It is indeed evident to the Christians especially, and to
the Jews generally, that God has intensified His wrath
against the Children of Israel, has cursed them, forsaken
them and their religion, and told them that He will burn
the stem from which they multiplied, destroy the mass
of them, and plant others in the desert and in the waste
and dry land. On this subject, how great is my amaze-
ment at the Jews, who avow all these things and do not
go beyond contemplating them, and burden themselves
with claims through which they become full of illusion
and deception. To this the Christians bear witness by
their evidence against the Jews, morning and evening,
that God has completely destroyed them, erased their
traces from the register of the earth, and annihilated the
image of their nation.
As to the community of the Christ peace be with Him
they have no right to claim all the prophecies that I
have succinctly quoted about the Prophet may God bless
and save him. They cannot claim to have made kings
captives, to have enslaved princes and conducted them
linked together with bonds and fetters, to have inherited
desert and waste lands, to have beheaded people, to have
multiplied killing and havoc in the earth, and other
146 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
peculiarities which are fitting and due only to Ishmael
and Hagar and their descendants, and to Maccah and its
Moreover, many prophets have distinctly mentioned
by name the Prophet may God bless and save him-
have described him with his sword-bearers and archers,
and told that death and rapacious birds shall go before
his armies, and that his country shall be overcrowded
with numerous caravans of camels and files of animals,
and that he shall destroy the nations and the kings
opposing him. All these confirm his religion, enhance
his rank, and testify to the veracity of what his mes-
sengers have told about him. This is especially the case
with Daniel, who closed all the prophecies with some-
thing that expels every doubt, and this is that the God
of heaven will set up an everlasting kingdom which shall
not change and perish. He who does not submit to him
that God has chosen and raised is to be scorned and
THE ANSWER TO THOSE WHO HAVE SAID THAT THE
REFUGEES " AND THE HELPERS EMBRACED THE
FAITH WITHOUT ANY SIGN.
SOMEBODY might say something similar to what was used
as an argument by an uncle of mine renowned for his
ability in discussion and for the superiority of his intel-
ligence, and known in the regions of 'Irak and Khura-
san by the name of Abu Zakkar Yahya ibn-Nu'man. In
one of the books that he wrote : Answer to Adherents to
Religions* he declared that he examined the reasons why
many Refugees and first disciples, both men and women,
embraced Islam, and he did not find anyone who adhered
to it by reason of a sign that he had seen or a miracle
that he could report. This was a strong objection
against Islam for me also, and I did not cease to be de-
ceived and fascinated by it, until I seceded from his faith ;
I found then that the answer to it was easy, and the out-
let from it broad. Indeed, if we retort with the same
argument against them, a statement will be credited to
us, which if they were to destroy, the prophecies of many
of their prophets would also be destroyed. The entry of
some people into the religion of a prophet without having
seen a miracle from him is not something which would
make vain all the other miracles of that prophet, nor is
the abstention of a prophet from showing a sign on a
given occasion something which would give him the lie.
The prophet Ezekiel peace be with him says in the
tenth chapter that a company from the children of Israel
came to him to test him, and to ask him some questions.
The answer that Ezekiel gave them was : " God has told
1 This book seems to be lost.
I 4 8 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
me, and has ordered me to tell you, that the Lord of
Lords says : I swear by My name that I am the living
one, and that I shall not give any answer to what you
are asking." 1
As to the Christ peace be with Him a great crowd
followed Him and believed in Him without having seen
any sign from Him. About this there is the saying of
the evangelist Matthew, found in the fourth chapter of
his Gospel, to the effect that when the Christ peace be
with Him " was walking by the shore of the sea of
Galilee, He saw two brethren, one of them was Simon
whom He called Cephas to whom He gave the direction
of the affairs of His nation, and whom He constituted
the foundation of His religion and Andrew, his brother,
fishing in the sea. He made a sign to them and said to
them : " Follow Me, and I will make you after this day
fishers of men ; and they forthwith left their nets and
followed Him." 2 And Matthew said in this chapter that
the Christ " going on from thence, saw other two breth-
ren, James the son of Zebedee, and John, fishing with
their father ; He called them to His faith, and they left
their father and followed Him." 3 And Matthew said in
this chapter that when the Christ "passed forth from
thence, He saw a publican called Matthew, and said unto
him : Follow Me ; and he went with Him." 4 He means
his own self, because he is the evangelist Matthew, one
of the four who wrote the Gospel.
These are five from the heads, the foremost, and the
earliest of the twelve Apostles, and the Gospel declares
that they followed the Christ without having seen any
sign and heard any convincing word from Him, apart
from a mere call. Would that I knew what harm has
come to the Christ from that, or what has shocked my
uncle Abu Zakkar and those who subscribe to his opinion,
from the fact that those who followed the Prophet may
1 Ezek. xx. 1-3. a Matth. iv. 18-20.
* Matth, iv. 21-22. 4 Matth. ix. 9.
REFUGEES AND HELPERS 149
God bless and save him did so without having seen a
sign from him. If what we have mentioned necessarily
annuls the remaining miracles of the Christ peace be
with Him it is then that the signs of the Prophet may
God bless and save him will necessarily be annulled, on
the ground that those who embraced his religion did so
without having seen a sign from him.
Some people came to the Christ peace be with Him
asking Him for a sign ; and He not only did not show
them any sign, but rebuked them strongly and reproved
them with their generations. The evangelist Matthew
bears witness to that, in the twelfth chapter, and tells
that a company of the Jews came to the Christ and asked
Him for a sign, but He answered them and said: "The
evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign ; and
there shall be no sign given to it, but the sign of the
prophet Jonas/ 11 He told them that He would not show
them a sign at all, because they were from the evil genera-
tion, meaning by that all the race of the Jews. As to
the sign of Jonas which He mentioned, it is his three-
days stay in the whale's belly ; further, this is not one of
the prophecies of the Christ, but it is one of the signs
of Jonas ; and Jonas was a long period of time before
Him. A sign consists in wonders that a prophet shows
to onlookers, which nobody besides him is able to per-
form ; or in his prophesying about things hidden from
him, which are realised in his time.
If somebody says: "My sign is that Moses rent the
sea, and the Christ quickened a dead man/* it will not be
accepted from him, because this is an argument in favour
of another one, and not of himself; however, no one can
think of the Christ that He was short of answers, nor
that He contradicted Himself, nor that He promised
something from which He afterwards desisted, nor that
He said that He would not do something which He did.
His saying, therefore, to those of the Children of Israel
1 M atth. xii. 39.
ISO BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
who had asked Him for a sign, that there would be no
answer to their demand, emanates either from God or
from Himself; if it emanates from God, God then did
the contrary of what He said to them, because He showed
them signs at the hands of the Christ, after this event ;
and if it emanates from Himself, then the Christ also did
the contrary of what He said, and disagreed with His
first saying; and this does not suit Him, and is incon-
ceivable of somebody like Him. As to me, I count this
also as an alteration and corruption in the text of the
Gospel, by translators and copyists.
And Matthew said in the sixteenth chapter that when
the Jews saw the Christ calling people and turning them
away from Judaism, they gathered to Him and said : " By
what authority doest thou what we see, and who gave
thee this authority ? " In answer to them Jesus said : " I
also will ask you one thing, which if ye tell Me, I in like
wise will tell you about your question. Tell Me about
the baptism of John, son of Zacharias, whence was it?
From heaven, or from earth ? " The crowd abstained
from answering, and said " We do not know ; " and the
Christ said " Neither tell I you by what authority I
work/' 1 We do not see that He answered the crowd
about what they had asked Him, but He simply competed
with them by propounding another question to them ;
and no one was able to find fault with Him on this
And Matthew said in the sixth 2 chapter that Pilate,
the representative of the King of the Romans, said to
the Christ, when the Jews brought Him to him : " I
adjure thee by the truth of God to tell me : art thou the
Christ, son of God, or not ? " And the Christ peace be
with Him did not say to him more than "Thou hast
said/' 8 There is neither affirmation nor negation in this
saying, and one is allowed to say that He meant to dispel
and discard this attribution from Himself, and to rebuke
1 Matth. xxi. 23-28. 2 Sic Cod. 3 Matth. xxvi. 63-64.
REFUGEES AND HELPERS 151
those who ascribed it to Him ; if not, why did He not say
" I am the son of God," when He was asked ? And why
did He not show a sign to clear up the question, and
put the Jews to shame and confusion ? This also is a
question to which the Christ gave no answer, and it has
not prejudiced the dignity of His rank nor His previous
And it is said in the Gospel which is in the hands of
the Christians that the Jews said to the Christ : " If thou
be the son of God, come down from the cross, that we
may believe in Thee ; " 1 and He did not do it, nor did
He show any sign ; and we do not say, because of this,
that He had no previous sign ; indeed He foresaw more
than anybody else the issues of this question, and what
God wanted from Him, or had determined for Him.
More forceful is what Matthew said in the second
chapter, that Satan said to the Christ when he was temp-
ting Him : " If thou be the son of God, direct these stones
to become bread ; " and the Christ did not say to him
more than: "It is written in the Books of Revelation
that man shall not live by bread alone, but by every
word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. 112
Do you not see may God guide you that the Christ
peace be with Him and other prophets were asked
questions to which they gave no answers, and were re-
quested to perform miracles which they did not perform,
because God had not permitted them to act otherwise
and had not opened to them at the moment the doors of
miracles ? And the disciples asked the Christ peace be
with Him about the Hour ; and He said : " This is a
secret and a hidden thing from Me, which God alone
knoweth." 3 Since this has not been a cause of blame
and reprobation to the Christ, it likewise must not be for
the Prophet may God bless and save him.
These are convincing and fair replies and answers,
1 Matth. xxvii. 40, etc. 3 Matth. iv. 3-4,
3 Matth. xxiv. 36, etc.
152 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
and cogent arguments, to that proposition and contention
to which the disciples of my uncle Abu Zakkar and those
who subscribe to his opinion, cling. I did not find a
single Christian scholar, either in ancient or in modern
times, who argued with this point against the Muslimst
except my uncle ; but God has refuted and explained it
by His grace and favour, and by the wisdom, the replies,
and the good suggestions of the Commander of the Faith-
ful may God strengthen him and by what I profited
Now exercise your mind may God guide you and
let not your intelligence be idle ; know that you have
been created for a great task, and that you are standing
at the brink of heaven or of Fire ; he with whom this
brink crumbles away into Fire 1 shall be in the abyss of
everlasting shame, eternal regret and torment, which the
Christ peace be with Him has described as a fire
which is not quenched, and as worms which do not die ; 2
but he whom truth takes up to the courts of heaven and
to the altitudes of the heavenly Gardens, shall be happy
and a winner of a great victory, and shall possess
eternal peace and happiness, which no eye has seen and
of which no ear has heard. Give, therefore, good advice
to your souls, and do not deceive them ; be true to them,
and do not beguile them. Truth has become clear, the
hiding veil has been withdrawn, and evidence has become
1 Kur. ix. no. a Mark, ix. 44, etc.
THE ANSWER TO THOSE WHO HAVE BLAMED ISLAM IN
ONE OF ITS PRACTICES OR IN ONE OF ITS PRESCRIP-
IF a man from the People of the Book reviles one of the
rules of the faith, and one of the practices of the Mus-
lims, he will be grossly unjust to us, will repudiate
and blame all the prophets, and will expose himself to sin
and punishment. If they blame sacrifices, they are in-
herited from Abraham ami from all the prophets of his
posterity peace be with them. I they reprobate cir-
cumcision, it was practised by the Christ and by those
who preceded Him. If they condemn divorce, their own
Books will render their endeavour fruitless ; and if they
condemn swearing by God, it is the saying of the Most
High to His prophets; 1 the prophet Isaiah peace be
with him declared on behalf of God : " I drew the
permanent word out of My mouth, that unto Me every
knee shall bow, and by Me every tongue shall swear. " 2
And Paul, whom the Christians call an apostle, said that
God made His promises to Abraham, in his seed, and
swore to him by Himself. 3 And Daniel said that the
angel who appeared to him lifted his hand to heaven and
swore by the Eternal Merciful that all that he had said
would surely take place. 4
If they blame the Holy War, Abraham fought the
four kings who had made inroads into the country of
Jazlrah to invade its inhabitants ; he protected his
neighbours and the people with whom he was living,
1 One line of the text is much damaged here, and some words have
only been conjectured.
3 Isa. xlv. 23. 3 Cf. Galat. iii. 16. 4 Cf. Dan. xii. 7.
154 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
destroyed the armies of the enemy with his servants and
men born in his house, and won from this fact honour,
credit, eternal remembrance, and perpetual praise ; he
gave back to their respective kings all the booty and the
men he saved, and did not hold back anything from the
spoils, not even a bead or a utensil, after these kings had
abandoned their countries and surrendered them. 1
And Joshua, son of Nun, killed thirty-one kings from
the kings of Syria, J and did not leave in one of their
towns called 'Ani 3 a single dweller, nor a man to blow
the fire ; and he did not call them to religion, nor did he
require tribute and capitation from them, nor did he
receive ransom from them, as the Muslims do.
And the prophet Samuel peace be with him said in
the twelfth chapter that the prophet David peace be
with him raided a Syrian country called Philistia, and
did not leave there a single man nor a single woman
without killing them. He then took sheep, cattle, asses,
and camels, and swept away with him goods, treasures,
and furniture, without calling the inhabitants either to
religion, or to pay tribute, or to submit. 4 And the Book
of Samuel relates that David was hungry one day, and
sent his retainers to a certain man in search of food, and
they did not bring him anything. He then went with
his men to attack this man and the inhabitants of his
village ; but behold, he saw the man's wife coming to
meet him, bringing him food and wine, for fear that he
should punish her husband. 5 He accepted that from her,
and was satisfied ; and his wrath cooled down and left
him. This and similar deeds of prophets are neither
reprobated nor blamed.
As to the Prophet may God bless and save him he
ordered, with persuasion and dissuasion, to worship One,
Eternal, and Omnipotent God, in order that religion
1 Cf. Gen. xiv. 5 seq. 2 Josh. xii. 24.
3 Probably 'At (cf. Josh. viii. I seq.).
4 Cf. I Sam. xxvii. 8 seq. 5 Cf. I Sam. xxv. 2-36.
REVILERS OF ISLAM 155
might be One and the Supreme Being One. He who
responds to that has the prerogatives and the obligations
of the Muslims ; and he who does not respond but gives
tribute on his hand in an humble condition, 1 he spares
his blood with this tribute and upon his submission
has a right to the compact of protection. This point
constitutes a fine subject of meditation for the un-
believers ; indeed, it lowers their amour-propre and their
pride, and calls the people of honour and self-esteem
among them to change their state of lowliness, and their
compact of protection by means of tribute, for the glory
of dignity and freedom. If they are averse to tribute
and submission, war shall be behind them.
And Moses peace be with him did more than that.
When he ordered the Children of Israel to leave Egypt
and go away, he told them that the Most High God had
ordered that every one of them should borrow the gar-
ments of his neighbour and acquaintance and the jewels of
their wives and daughters, and that they should inform
them that it was for the occasion of one of their feasts.
The Egyptian people yielded to this, adorned the
Israelites with what they had, and lent them both their
useful and necessary things. The Children of Israel
numbered then about six hundred thousand combatants.
When all was gathered to them and was in their posses-
sion, they journeyed all the night and departed one and
all. And God rent the sea for them, and they crossed it ;
Pharaoh sought after them, and they dreaded him, but
God drowned Pharaoh, and set the heart of the Israelites
at rest from him.' 2 The owners of those borrowed objects,
and their wives and daughters were deprived of their
loaned articles ; and their treasures, a griffin carried them
away ; s and they bit their fingers out of regret.
All this was not unlawful and illicit, but was simply
the right of booty and spoils ; for the world belongs to
1 Kur. ix. 29. 2 Cf. Exod. xi. 2 ; xii. 35-37, etc.
3 A proverb meaning "that they would not see them again."
i$6 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
the Most High God, and its Kingdom and ornaments
belong to those of His servants upon whom He bestows
them, as He said in His Book : " Thou givest the King-
dom to whomsoever Thou pleasest, and strippest the
Kingdom from whomsoever Thou pleasest." 1 And in-
asmuch as what was done by the prophets whom we
have mentioned is not shameful and sinful, but as some-
thing done by way of tacit authorisation and good-will
of God, 2 so also are to be considered the holy war
against the polytheists and the attacks against the un-
believers, the injunction of which God laid upon the
Prophet may God bless and save him. Without holy
war no religion could stand, no inviolable thing could
be safe, no gap could be filled, and the Muslims would
become the prey and possession of their enemies. Men
would scarcely remain in a religion with such standing
without passing to what is higher and safer.
The Christ peace be with Him had forbidden war
and given warning against its causes in saying : " Who-
soever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain ;
whosoever taketh away thy coat, give him thy cloak
also ; whosoever shall smite thee on thy cheek, turn to
him the other also/' 3 By this order the Christ peace
be with Him left but little spiritual and temporal power
to His followers, and transferred their heritage to the
members of another nation who stirred war in East and
West, and kindled it with spears and swords as far as the
countries of the Greeks, of the Franks, of the tent-dwell-
ing Turanians, 4 and of the Armenians. Outside these
countries what Christians are to be found in the country
1 Kur. iii. 25. a Kur. Ivii. 20.
3 Matth. v. 39-40 ; Luk. vi. 29.
4 This is probably the earliest mention made of the Turanians in any
Christian or Islamic work. See A Manual on the Turanians and Tur-
anianism, London, 1918, pp. 12-14. The author appears to believe that
at least a great number of the Turanian Turks were Christian in his time,
and seems to imply that Turanian is not absolutely identical with Turk.
The habitat of the Turanians was probably not very far from Mongolia.
REVILERS OF ISLAM 157
of the Turks except a small and despicable quantity of
Nestorians scattered among the nations? or what are
those found among the Arabs except a sprinkling of Jaco-
bites and Melchites ?
Then we have seen that the Christ peace be with
Him gave permission ultimately to take swords ; and in
that he abrogated the first order. He said, indeed, to His
disciples : " Let each one of you sell his garment and buy
a sword with it for himself " l And He said : " Think
not I am come to sow peace on earth, but war." 2 He
who slurs Islam in what has been considered good, and
put in practice, by the prophets whom we have mention-
ed, deviates from the path of justice.
If somebody reprobates the saying of the Prophet
may God bless and save him, that in the world to come
there is food and drink, the answer would be that the
Christ peace be with Him declared also such a thing
to His disciples when He drank with them and said to
them : " I will not drink of this fruit of the vine, until I
drink it another time with you in the kingdom of heaven." 3
In this He declared that in heaven there is wine and
drink ; and where drink is found, food and pleasures are
not blamed. And Luke declares in his Gospel that the
Christ peace be with Him said: "You shall eat and
drink at the table of my Father." 4 And John declares
that the Christ peace be with Him said : " There are
many mansions and dwellings at my Father's." 5
All these confirm the existence of food and drink in
the world to come, and of mansions and pleasures, ac-
cording to what the Most High God said in His Book :
"And gardens shall they have therein and lasting
pleasure. 1 ' 8
1 Luk. xxii. 36 (cf. supra, p. 143), 2 Matth. x. 34.
8 Matth. xxvi. 29. 4 Luk. xxii. 30.
9 Job. xiv. 2. 6 Kur. ix. 21.
THE ANSWER TO THOSE WHO REPROBATE THE FACT
THAT THE PROPHETMAY GOD BLESS AND SAVE
HIM -CONTRADICTED MOSES AND CHRIST PEACE BE
WITH BOTH OF THEM IN CHANGING THE RULES OF
THE TORAH AND THE GOSPEL.
IF one of those adversaries who penetrate deeply into
science contends that the Prophet may God bless and
save him believed in the Torah and the Gospel in his
words, but disagreed with them in his actions, and that
in the fact of his confirming them once and contradicting
them another time there are in him indications of incon-
sistency, we will reply that God may He be blessed and
exalted is Wise, Knower, Compassionate, Merciful ;
creatures are for Him, guidance is from Him, power and
strength are by Him ; and His servants are not to object
to what He does, nor to interfere with His prescience
and the secrets of His Providence, but they should sub-
mit and obey.
The most High God said through Moses peace be
with him "God will raise you up a prophet from
amongst your brethren, like unto me ; hearken unto
him ; and he who does not hearken unto him, I will
avenge myself on him." 1 The Prophet peace be with
him appeared from amongst the brethren of the Jews,
followed the prescriptions of God, and believed in Moses,
of whom he said that "he conversed with God," 2 and
believed also in Jesus, of whom he said that He was
" The Spirit of God and His Word, whom He has chosen,
honoured, and taken to heaven ; and He is with Him ; " 3
1 Deut. xviii. 18-19 (cf. supra, p. 85).
2 Iur. iv. 164, etc. 8 Kur. iv. 156, 169, etc.
THE PROPHET AND THE BIBLE 159
and he did not contradict Moses in the article of the unity
of God, nor did he utter on this subject ambiguities
and equivocations as the Christians did, but he openly
and clearly proclaimed it, and rendered faith pure and
his saying precise. Moreover, all the prophets agreed
with him with regard to the Kiblah } divorce, circum-
cision, fight against the unbelievers, protection of chil-
dren by forcible means, and retaliation. And he multi-
plied sacrifices to the Most High God alone, and renewed
to his nation rules and prescriptions which tally with
the order of God ; and the servants of God have nothing
left to them but to obey God through him.
If people were permitted to slight and reprobate
divine orders and economy of this kind, one would be
allowed to say about the Christ that He once believed
in the Torah and said : " I am not come to destroy it,
but to fulfil it ; verily, I say unto you, Till heaven and
earth pass, one letter shall not pass from it," 1 and then
He openly contradicted Moses, and flung the Torah aside,
to such an extent that the learned men of His commun-
ity have reason to say openly and publicly : " The Old
Testament has passed and gone, and the New Testament
has come and appeared ; 2 they mean by Old Testament
the Torah and its laws and the other Books of the pro-
phets, and by New Testament the Gospel and the Books
of the Apostles. As to the pillar of the Torah the prop
of Judaism its rites, its circumcision, its sacrifices, its
feasts, its law of retaliation, its decisions, its priesthood,
and its altars, the Christ peace be with Him has abro-
gated and annulled all of them. He did not leave the
Jews a feast, without abolishing it ; a Sabbath, without
infringing it ; a circumcision, without gently rejecting
it; a sacrifice, without forbidding it; an altar, without
despoiling it ; and a priest, without calling him adul-
terous and profligate.
1 Matth. v. 17-18.
a This thought is frequently found in the East Syrian or Nestorian
160 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Matthew said in the thirteenth chapter that the
Christ peace be with Him " went on the Sabbath
day through the cornfields, and His disciples were an-
hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn and to
eat ; " l and He did not blame their action, nor did He
reprobate it. And Matthew said in this chapter 2 that
the Christ, pointing to the Children of Israel who were
present with Him, said : " You have heard the Torah
say, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give
her a writing of divorcement ; but I say unto you that
whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause
of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery, and who-
soever shall marry a divorced woman shall commit
adultery." 3 One might say, in disapprobation of this
saying: What has a husband to do with a wife who
committed sorcery, or became infidel, or poisoned her
parents, or killed her child, or had intercourse with him ?
Can he not divorce her for all these ? But how ? That
would be impossible for him, because the Christ has per-
mitted divorce only in case of adultery.
And He said in this chapter : " You have heard that
it has been said in the Books of Revelation : A tooth for
a tooth, and an eye for an eye ; but I say unto you :
Whosoever shall smite thee on thy cheek, turn to him
the other cheek also, and whosoever shall ask thee, re-
fuse him not." 4 And Paul, who has the precedence
among them, and whom they obey, said : 4< Circumcision
is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing." 5 In this he
openly abolished circumcision. This and similar things
are not considered blameable and reprehensible on the
part of Christ may God bless and save Him ; similarly,
the new rules, the additions to, and the subtractions from,
the rules of the Torah and the Gospel, which the Prophet
may God bless and save him has innovated, are not
to be reprobated and blamed.
1 Matth. xii. i. 2 Sic Cod.
8 Matth. v. 31-32. 4 Matth. v. 39-40, 42. I Cor. vii. 19.
THE ANSWER TO THOSE WHO HAVE PRETENDED THAT
NO ONE BUT THE CHRIST PEACE BE WITH HIM
MENTIONED THE RESURRECTION.
THE Christians have said that nobody but the Christ has
made known the Resurrection, and proclaimed the Last
Day and the Eevivification. By my life, He has pro-
claimed it and announced it in clear words, and God has
honoured Him with an honour greater than that of His
predecessors ; but the prophets who preceded Him
knew it and mentioned it. The prophet Moses said on
behalf of God : " I am alone, and there is no God besides
Me; I kill and I make alive." 1 And the prophet David
said in the Psalter: "The giants shall be resuscitated
and revivified, and they shall glorify Thee, O Lord, and
they shall declare that Thy grace is in the graves/' 2 And
God may He be blessed and exalted said also through
him : " I will revivify them and resuscitate them from
the teeth of the lions and from the depths of the sea." 3
And the prophet Daniel peace be with Him said : "A
great multitude shall be resuscitated from the graves,
some to everlasting life, and some to perdition and to the
contempt of their companions for ever." 4 And Hannah
the prophetess peace be with her said in the Book of
the prophet Samuel peace be with him "The Lord
killeth and maketh alive ; He bringeth down to the grave,
and bringeth up from it." 5 And the Most High God said
to Daniel peace be with him "Go and lie down (in
conformity with) the decreed order ; and thou shalt rise,
at the appointed moment, at the end of the world." 6
J Deut. xxxii. 39. 2 Ps. Ixxxviii. 10. 8 Ps. Ixviii. 22
4 Dan. xii. 2. 5 1. Sam. ii. 6. 6 Dan. xii. 13.
Now that you know may God guide you that our
common agreement is in accordance with your common
agreement on the point that God is just, that He loves
justice and those who practise it, and that He has for-
bidden injustice and iniquity, it is just and fair that you
should look back into the motives for which you have
accepted your religion and see what they are. If it be-
comes evident to you that they are only possible and
praiseworthy stories transmitted to you by a successor
from his predecessor, and by a last from a first man, it is
also through such stories that we have accepted the
Prophet peace be with him.
MoFeover, among those who handed down to you
those stories of yours, there was none who claimed that
he had taken them from an eye-witness among his fathers
or grandfathers who had seen the Christ or Moses
peace be with them as the Arabs claim on the authority
of their fathers and their grandfathers who had seen the
Prophet peace be with him. Indeed, a man among the
Arabs records, on the authority of his grandfather or the
grandfather of his grandfather, or a man of his relatives,
what they have seen and transmitted to their successors.
As to your stories, they have been handed down to you
by a man of i Irak, who took them from a man of Jazirah,
who in his turn took them from a man of Syria, who
'himself took them from an Hebrew; or by a Persian,
who took them from a Greek; or by an Eastern, who
took them from a Western, through obscure and irregular
channels. How, then, could you rpfute or blame the
man who says : "I have accepted this religion of Islam
and believed in it by means of the evidences and testi-
monies through which you have accepted your own
religion ?"; or who says: "When I saw members of a
nation great in rank and high in dignity with regard to
number, power, piety, wisdom, and uprightness, telling me
what we have related above, as having heard it from
their fathers and grandfathers, and showing a Book they
transmit <to one another, century after century, which
calls to the unity of God and His glorification and to the
belief in His apostles and prophets ; which refuses to
acknowledge associates and equals with God; which
enjoins the best and highest things and that which is in
harmony with the rules and the recommendations of the
prophets ; which warns its adherents against evil and
evildoers ; and which foretells events, which were realised
time after time and year after year ; then, when I found
that the Books of those of the prophets in whom you be-
lieve had testified to our Prophet and prophesied about
his empire and his religion as we have already demon-
strated I embraced such a religion, and hoped for what,
through it, I shall have with God."
If you pretend that there is no obligation to acknow-
ledge the man of such description, prophetic office, merits,
and evidences, all that you yourself claim will be abolished,
and with all your belief you will be thrown into unbelief.
And if you excuse yourself with reference to Dualists
and Pagans and the like, that they also transmit stories
from their religious leaders, and relate wonders of their
messengers and deceivers, and prove the veracity of their
stories from their own religious books and written his-
tories we have already spoken of that, at the beginning
of this book, with such evidence that the only men who
would close their ears to it would be those whose only
aim is to quibble and to refrain from serious discussion,
and whose only religion is obstinacy and arrogance ;
such false leaders, because they have contradicted them-
selves and have called men to impurity and aberration,
1 64 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
have gone astray, and because they have associated other
gods with I God, have run to perdition. Such men are
not to be compared with a man whose leader was truth,
whose aim was true guidance, whose distinctive mark
was devotion and asceticism, and whose call was to One
and Unique God, the God of Abraham and of the rest of
the prophets peace be with them and about whom the
prophets had prophesied in terms which are now quite
Waive, therefore, suspicions and excuses, O my cousins
may God guide you and walk in the safest and most
direct way, and avoid the most misleading and crooked
path. If you ponder well, it will become evident to you
that the motives and reasons for which we have accepted
the prophetic office of the Prophet peace be with him
are similar to the motives and the reasons for which you
have accepted Christ and Moses peace be with both of
them ; therefore, if we are wrong and exposed to the
punishment of God, so also are you. Discuss, therefore,
with your own souls, summon us to the tribunal of your
mind and intelligence, and argue for us and for your-
selves, against us and against yourselves, in order that the
veil may be withdrawn from you ;-you will then, by the
assistance of God, see the truth itself.
If somebody blames the Prophet peace be with him
and says that he peace be with him attributed evil to
God, the answer is that he has pronounced clear state-
ments about the justice, mercy, and might of God ; and
these we have mentioned at the beginning of this book.
And God may He be blessed and exalted said to Moses
peace be with him "I will harden Pharaoh's heart,
that he should not bring you out of the land of Egypt. " 1
And the prophet Isaiah peace be with him said : " God
hath made peace, and hath created both good and evil/' 2
And Paul, who has the precedence among the Christians
and whom they obey, said in his Epistle to Timothy :
1 Exod. vii. 3-4. a Isa. xlv. 7.
" In a great house there are not only vessels of silver
and gold, but also vessels of wood and of earth ; some to
honour and some to dishonour." 1 He means/by that the
world, and all the happy and wretched people who are
At the end of this book I will ask you may God
guide you a general, decisive, and convincing question.
What would you say of a man coming to this country
from the regions of India and China, with the intention
of being rightly guided, of inquiring into the religions
found in it, and of acquainting himself with the customs
of its inhabitants?
It will be said to him that some of its inhabitants
belong to a religion called Magianism. They worship
stars and fires, and pretend that God is the creator of
good and light, and that Satan is the creator of darkness
and evil; that war is never at rest between them, and
because they do not obtain their desire, they have neither
peace nor respite, and are powerless and bewildered ;
that the will of God and His pleasure are that one should
have intercourse with one's mother and daughter, purify
himself with the rotten fluid excretion of cows, and cleave
to immoral converse and dance ; that the spirits of their
dead come back to them once a year, partake of the food
and drink put before them, and at their withdrawal pro-
vision themselves; 2 and they have some other vicious
and occult customs similar to those we have mentioned
at the beginning of this book, with filthy habits, and
clear signs of vengeance from God on them, and ancient
prophecies against them, found in the Books of the
prophets, to which we have referred above.
Some of its inhabitants belong to a religion called
Zindikism. Their religion is similar to that of the
Magians, and it goes even in advance of it in error, per-
verseness, filth, impurity, and stupidity.
1 II. Tim. ii. 20.
2 This information is not without historical interest.
1 66 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Some of its inhabitants belong to a religion called
Christianism. A branch of them pretend that when God
saw that the power of Satan was becoming supreme and
its strength formidable, and that the prophets were
unable to resist him, He found for Himself an eternal and
everlasting Son, not rivalled by any creature, who entered
into the womb of a woman, and was born of her ; then
He grew up and strove with Satan ; but Satan seized
Him, killed Him, and then crucified Him at the hands of
a band of his followers, 1 Another branch of them assume
that the One who was killed was only the temple and the
habitation of that Son, with whom He had become so
united that this eternal Son ate the same food as that of
the created, went to the place of easement with Him, and
was killed with Him. 2
Some of its inhabitants belong to a religion called
Judaism. They have in their hands Books of some men
whom they call prophets, and relate how these prophets
have cursed them, and report that God has completely
forsaken them, execrated their religion, scattered them in
all regions, extinguished their light, and sworn that He
will never pity them again.
Some of its inhabitants belong /to this pure and sub-
lime religion called Islam. They say that God is One,
Eternal, who has no partner with Him, and whom no one
can overcome, because to Him belong omnipotence and
everlastingness. He has no child and no father, and He
is the Compassionate, the Merciful, the First, and the
Last. Their Prophet has prescribed, on behalf of God,
piety to parents, fasting, prayer, purity, and cleanliness ;
has made lawful for them the good things, and forbidden
the evil things, and has promised heaven, and warned
In which of these religions and creeds would that
Indian or that Chinese wish to believe, and to which of
1 Allusion to the Jacobites. 2 Allusion to the Nestorians.
them would he incline, and of which of them would he
approve, if he were a man of broad mind, sound judg-
ment, and an enquirer after mere truth and nothing else ?
And what would be the argument of God against any
one of His servants who would say to Him, Just and
Compassionate as He is, who does not wrong anybody
by the weight of an atom : l
41 I heard a preacher call to Thy Unity, magnify Thee,
praise Thee, and glorify Thee ; and I responded to him.
I heard 2 him order us to believe in Thy prophets and in
Thy Chosen Ones, and prescribe prayer, fasting, and
alms ; and I obeyed him, in the hope of the reward
which I shall have with Thee, and in obedience to Thy
order. I heard him urge us to go on pilgrimage to a far
and remote country ; and I made this pilgrimage, and
did not hesitate. I heard him exhort us to wage war
against Thy enemies who disbelieve in Thee, and do not
pray to Thee ; and I prayed to Thee and fought a holy
war, with all my might and not half-heartedly, wishing
in all things to please Thee. I saw disgraceful and
occult religions and creeds such as those I have men-
tioned above and I cast them aside, left them completely,
and held to what I thought was the most solid handle,
and the best way to please Thee. O my God, if I have
mistaken what I have chosen, and have erred in what I
have selected, Thou hast the strongest reason to pity
Thy servant who exerted his utmost in the search of
what is with Thee, but mistook the way to come to
O my cousins, this is an acceptable saying, and not a
despicable excuse, even with the imperfect and exacting
servants of God ; how much more so then with the
Most Compassionate of the merciful, and the most equit-
able judge who does not require of a soul more than its
1 Cf. Kur. iv. 44, etc. 3 Lit. " I saw ".
168 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Examine then may God guide you these argu-
ments and illustrations, throw away mischievous pre-
judices, and remove the veil from your eyes and the
covers and the locks from your hearts ; content your-
selves, in the chapters that I have written, either with
the one which deals with the prophetic office, or with
the one concerning the stories related of the Prophet
peace be with him or with the one relating to the re-
splendent victory won in the name of the God of Abra-
ham ; or with the one on the living Book of the Kur'an
and its merits, which I have set forth above ; or with the
one on the successive prophecies of the prophets, and
the meanings and interpretations that I have given to
them. Listen to my advice, because I have sifted for
you my admonitions, and know that I have sought in
what I have written neither vain glory nor distinction,
but only what is with God who does not disappoint the
man who trusts in Him, and in compliance with the
wish of His Caliph and servant Ja'far al-Mutawakkil
4 ala Allah, the Commander of the Faithful may God
I expect gratitude and ask for consideration from
pious and magnanimous Muslims, and also from the more
intelligent and able men among the members of the pro-
tected cults, since I have demonstrated to the common
people among them what I have thoroughly investigated,
and disclosed to them what I know with certitude, and
made them understand what I had myself understood,
intending by that that they should participate in the
light brought to me, and in the final success for which I
hope. In case I am right in what I have said my merit
and my success should redound on me and on them, and
in case I am wrong the blame should be laid on me to the
exclusion of them. I crave the continuation of Divine
protection and assistance, and I take refuge with God
from my want of requisite knowledge, in beseeching
Him to remove scandal, and to grant me the garment of
modesty and righteousness, and the attainment of what
sooner or later I hoped from Him, in what I have written
This my book, which I have entitled Book of Religion
and Empire, 1 has decisively demonstrated the unsound-
ness and fallacy of Judaism, the villainy and falseness of
Dualism and Atheism, 2 and the onlooker already ob-
serves their downfall and their eclipse, and sees that
resplendent light and true faith are exclusively in Islam.
I first thank God for His guidance to me, then His
servant and Caliph Ja'far al-Mutawakkil 'ala Allah, Com-
mander of the Faithful may God prolong his life who
invited and attracted me to him, along with other people
of the protected cults, by persuasion and dissuasion, and
by the respect and consideration that he has for all. It
is for this reason that I devoted the first chapter of this
book to a description of what my community has ex-
perienced from his munificence, from the tokens of his
mercy, the gentleness of his administration, the pros-
perity of his reign, and the great number of his conquests,
and to show the obligation of Muslims and non-Muslims
alike to love him, to obey him, and to be grateful to him.
Peace be with those who follow true guidance, who
befriend piety, who love righteousness and virtue, who
seek partisans for them, and who exhort to them !
1 Kitab ud-Din wcfd-Daulah.
3 More especially the doctrine of the eternity of matter.
'Abbas, 47, 48, 126.
* Abbas (Abu), 45, 46.
'Abbas (ibn), 33.
'Abbasid, 45-46, 126, 137-138.
'Abdallah (Ansari), 35.
'Abdallah (b. 'Abbas), 47.
'Abdallah (b. <Umar), 70, 72.
Abraham, 2, 20, 58, 77, 79, 80, 8 1,
90, 97, 102, 115, 130, 144, 153,
164, 1 68.
Abyssinians, 39, 106.
Adam, 7, 22, 130.
'Adi, 13, 48, 49-
Agabus, 1 8.
Ahmad, 42, 99, 108, in.
Ahwaz, 67, 126.
Alexander, 7, 58, 126.
'Ali, 25, 43, 44, 66, 69.
'AH (the author), i,cf. 19, 50, 147, 169.
Anas, 32, 34, 35, 44.
'Ansi (the liar), 47.
Arab, 3, 34, 41, 49, 5, 57, 84, 87,
91, 98, 113, 114, u6, 125, 127,
137, 144, 157, 162.
Arabia, 99, 103, 544.
Arabic, 105, 121, 122, 130, 142.
Aswad (b. Muttalib), 31.
Aswad (b. 'Abd Yaghuth), 31.
Atheists, 58, 169.
'Ayeshah, 25, 43, 55.
Babylon, 96, 97, 126, 127, 129, 137.
Baghdad, cf. 114, 127.
Bakr (Abu), 30, 33, 42, 45, 49, 61-64
Basrah, 13, 43, 73.
Buddhists, 7, 8.
Caesar, 46, 113.
Chinese, 7, 166.
Chosrau, 46, 49, 65, 67, 100, 113.
Christ, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,25,36,
5i, 55, 59, 74, 75, 77, 83, 86, 96,
106, 130, 136, 137, 139, 140-1431
145, 147-152, 156-157, 158-160,
161, 162, 164.
Christian, 11, 12, 15, 17, 18, 28, 36,
50, 51, 57, 75, 76, 80, 81, 106,
120, 124, 130, 137, 139, 144, I45>
151, 153, 156, 159, 161, 164.
Christianism, u, 82, 106.
Damascus, 66, 126.
Daniel, 16, I33-I39> *42, 146, 153,
David, 16, 28, 54, 55, 86, 88-92, 93,
115, 127, 131, 154, 161.
Dualism, u, 123, 169.
Dualists, 58, 163.
Dumat (Jandal), 39.
BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Egypt, 50, 53, 76, 81, 82, 155, 164.
Egyptian, 54, 155.
Elam, 95, 125, 126, 127.
Elisha, 1 6.
Ezekiel, 17, 53, 128-129, 133, 147.
Fatimah, 25, 42, 44-
Franks, 1 56.
Gabriel, 2, 26, 31, 80.
Ghifar (banu), 33.
Greek (language), 121.
Greek, 7, 48, 50, 54, 9*1 9&, 121,
Habakkuk, 119, 131.
Hagar, 77, 78, 79, 80, 83, 105, 106,
107, 108, 109, 113, 114, 130, 144,
Hannah, 17, 161.
Hasan, 44, 66.
Hebrew (language), 98, 121.
Hebrew (Jew), 162.
Helpers, 48, 85, 147.
Hijaz, 82, joi, 103, 114.
Hlrah, 45, 48.
Hosea, 17, 53, "7.
India, 8, 82, 114, 122, 165.
Indian, 7, 8, 50, 54, 166.
'Irak, 13, 72, 101, 126, 127, 147, 162.
Isaac, 2, 20, 58, 8 1, 97.
Isaiah, 16, 51, 53, 91, 93-1 16, "7,
124, 130, 131, 153,164.
Ishmael, 2, 14, 20, 58, 77-84, 85, 87,
92, 94, 95, !02, no, 115, 137,
144, 145, 146.
Islam, i, 3, 4, ", 18, 19, 46, 47, 49,
59, 62, 74, 102, 124, 142, 147,
157, 162, 166, 169.
Israel, 28, 29, 51, 53, 83, 85, 86, 96,
102, 103, 108, III, 112, 113, 120,
124,125, 130, 136, 137, 145, 147,
149, 155, 160.
Israelites, 52, 86, 155.
Jabir (Ansari), 35.
Jacob, 2, 20, 58.
Jam (the King), 7.
Jazlrah, 153, 162.
Jeremiah, 16, 51, 124-127.
Jerusalem, 18, 53, 118, 129, 137, 144-
Jesus, 2, 28, 30, 106, 142, 158.
Jew, 12, 28, 52, 53, 59, 76, 81, 86,
124, 128, 129, 130, 142, 143, MS,
149, 150-151, 158, 159.
Jewish, 52, 78.
John, 140, 141, 142, 148, 157.
John (son of Zacharias), 117, 150.
Joshua, 86, 1 54.
Judaism, 82, 150, 159, 166, 169.
Judas, 1 8.
Kasim (Abu), 62.
Kedar, 92, no.
Khalid (b. Walld), 39. I
Khazar, 82, 122.
Khurasan, 45, 147.
uraish, 38, 47.
Kur'an, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 27, 28,
29, 30, 3i, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 50-
56, 73, 94, ioi, 125, 140, 168.
Lebanon, 90, 93, 99, in.
Lucius, 1 8.
Luke, 18, 55, 143, *57-
Maccah, 33, 34, 39, 73, 87, 90, 107'
109, no, H2, 113, H4, 115, 116,
118, 129, 142, 144, 146.
Magians, 7, 8, 10, 11, 165.
Magianism, n, 165.
Mahmud, 88, 89, 90, 103, 105, 108.
Malik, 33, 34, 44-
Mani, 11, 12.
Marcus, 78, 95, 98.
Mary, 77, 80, 142.
Matthew, 55, 148-151, 161.
Media, 95, 97, 13?.
Micah, 1 1 8.
Midian, 94, no, 1 19.
Moses, 2, 1 6, 17, 28, 29, 30, 52, 55,
74, 75, 76, 77-87, 119, 137, 149,
158-159, 161, 162, 164.
Mu'awiah, 13, 43, 70.
Muhammad, i, 26, 39, 42, 75, 76, 79,
86, 88, 90, 92, 98, 102, 103, 105,
108, 1 10, 115, 119, 130-132, 134.
Musailamah, 1 1 .
Muslim (Abu), 45.
Muslim (adj.), 19, 25, 38, 44, 47, 48,
55,73, no, 143-
Muslim (subs.), 3, 31, 33, 36, 41, 47,
49, 57, 58, 62, 63, 66, 71, 72, 75,
76, 95, 106, 117, 125, 145, 152,
153, 154, 155, i5 6 , 1 68, 169.
Mutawakkil, 4, 19, 152, 168, 169.
Pagans, 58, 163.
Paran (mount), 80, 86, 87, 119, 144.
Paul, 18, 55,1,13, M4-I45, I53> l6 ,
Persia, 91, 97, 126.
Persian (language), 121, cf. 84.
Persian, 47, 5, 54, 84, 98, 126, 127,
Pharaoh, 81, ioi, 155, 164.
Philip, 1 8.
Phiruz, 46, 47.
Pi son, 90.
Protected cults (dhimmis\ mainly
58 and 154-155.
Rabi' (b. Khaitham), 72.
Sa'd (b. 'Ubadah), 38, 39.
Samuel, 154, 161.
Sarah, 78, 79, 83, 106, 130.
Satan, 12, 55, 59, 60, 165, 166.
Saul (Paul), 130.
Saul, 1 8.
174 BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE
Stir, 86, 144-
Sheba, 89, no.
Silas, 1 8.
Simon (Cephas), 55, 75, 83, 130, 'Umar, 33, 42, 45, 47, 62, 63, 65.
142, 143, M 68 -
Sinai, 86, 144.
Sind, 46, 114.
Sinim, 1 12.
Syria, 73, 76, 82, 101, 121, 126, 144,
Syriac, 87, 103, 116, 121, 129, 130,
Walid (b. Mughirah), 31.
Walld (b. Yazld), 70.
War (Holy, 7/7/5*0, 23, 49, 57, M3,
Syrian, 87, 95, 129, 154.
Sufyan (Abu), 34.
Sus, 58, 82.
Tababi'ah, 7, 126.
Tabari (the author), I.
Tarshish, 89, 93, in.
Tigris, 90, 100.
Tradition, 17, 42, 46, 162.
Trinity, 123, 159, etc.
Turkestan, 58, 82.
Turks, 106, 122, 157.
'Umar (b. Abd al-'Aziz), 70-72.
Umayyads, 46, 70, 126.
'Uthman, 33, 42, 43, 45-
Ya'la (b. Umayyah), 35.
Yaman, 46, 47, 90, 101, no.
Zakkar (Abu), 147, 148, 152.
Zephaniah, 121, 123.
Zindiks, 7, 10, 51.
Zion, 53, 116.
Zoroaster, 10, 12.
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of the texts are reproduced in extenso.
NEW COPTIC MANUSCRIPTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. By
W. E. Crum. 1920. 8vo, pp. 7. Is. net.
%* Descriptive notes of a few Coptic pieces on papyrus and vellum which have been acquired
since the publication of the aforementioned catalogue in 1909.
CATALOGUE OF THE GREEK PAPYRI IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY.
By Arthur S. Hunt, M.A., Litt.D., J. de M. Johnson, M.A., and Victor Martin, D. es L
Vol. 1: Literary texts (Nos, 1-61). 1911. 4to, pp. xii, 204. 10 plates of facsimiles in
collotype. Vol. 2 : Documents of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods (Nos. 62-456). 1916.
4to, pp. xx, 488. 23 plates in collotype. Each volume I guinea net.
\* The texts are reproduced in extenso, and comprise many interesting Biblical, liturgical,
classical papyri, and non-literary documents of an official or legal character ranging from the third
century B.C. to the sixth century A.D.
CATALOGUE OF THE LATIN MANUSCRIPTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS
LIBRARY. Nos. 1-183. By Montague Rhodes James, Litt.D., etc. 2 vols. 4to.
187 plates of facsimiles. 4 guineas net.
Vol. 1 : Descriptive catalogue, with indexes of contents, place names, proper names,
saints, illustrations, etc. Pp. xvi, 328.
Vol. 2 : Facsimiles in collotype.
V The collection here described includes examples, of first-class quality, of the art and calli-
graphy of most of the great writing schools of Europe.
HAND-LIST OF ADDITIONS TO THE COLLECTION OF LATIN MANU-
SCRIPS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY, 1908-1920 (No*. 184-332).
By R. Fawtier, D. es L 1921. 8vo, pp. 21. Is. net.
** The MSS. dealt with in this temporary hand-list represent the additions, to the number
of 149, to the Latin section of the Western MSS., which were acquired for the library between
the years 1908 and 1920. They include several very important service books, cartularies, ward-
robe books, and other interesting historical and theological items.
HAND-LIST OF THE MAINWAR1NG AND JODRELL MANUSCRIPTS, at
present in the custody of the John Rylands Library. By R. Fawtier, D. es L. 8vo, pp. 48.
** The collections dealt with have been deposited in the library, on loan, for safe custody,
and include a number of interesting early charters (many of which date back to the time of Edward
I.), diaries, household books, literary papers, and other deeds and evidences relating to the Cheshire
estates and families of Mainwaring, who have been seated in Cheshire ever since the Conquest, and
of Jodrell, who have been seated there certainly since 1357.
HAND-LIST OF THE SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS
LIBRARY. By A. Mingana, D.D. 1922. 8vo, 2s. net. [Nearly ready.
** The collection is not a large one, but it includes a number of interesting works of per-
manent value, notably : a copy of Gannath Bus same, the unpublished repertory of East Syrian
exegesis ; chapters from the first work ever written on monasticism by Gregory of Cyprus ; the
Capita of Nestorius ; an unique lexicographical treatise ; two treatises dealing with India, one by
an eye-witness describing the landing of the Portuguese, and their successive misfortunes and final
success ; a transcript of the oldest extant text of the liturgical prayers of the Nestorians, written in
China, etc. The hand-list contains many descriptive notes.
SUMERIAN TABLETS FROM UMMA IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY.
. . . Transcribed, transliterated, and translated by C. L. Bedale, M.A. . . . With a Fore-
word by Canon C. H. W. Johns, M.A., Litt.D .1915. 4to, pp. xvi, 16, with ten facsimiles.
**This thin quarto consists of a description lof fifty-eight tablets,! forming part of the collec-
tion recently acquired by the library.
BRIEF NOTES ON SOME OF THE RARER OR UNIQUE ARABIC AND
PERSIAN-ARABIC MANUSCRIPTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY.
By A. Mingana, D.D. 1922. 8vo, pp. 9. h. net.
* * The object of these notes is to direct attention to works of importance in the particular
field of research to which they belong, the very existence of which would otherwise remain unknown
until the full catalogue, which is in preparation, is published ; since the whole of the items dealt
with are either unique or of such rare occurrence as to render them almost so.
AN IMPORTANT OLD TURKI MANUSCRIPT IN THE JOHN RYLANDS
LIBRARY. By A. Mingana, D.D. 1915. 8vo, pp. 12, with two facsimiles. Is. net.
%*The MS. referred to is a trilingual copy of the Kurfin in fourteen volumes. The
languages, which are interlinear, are Arabic, Persian, nnd Old Turki.
"FILIA MAGISTRI " : un abrege des sentences de Pierre Lombard.**' Notes sur un manuscrit
latin conserve a la Bibliotheque John Rylands. By Raymond M. Martin, O.P. 1915.
8vo, pp. 12. Is. net.
SOME EARLY JUD/EO-CHRIST1AN DOCUMENTS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS
LIBRARY. I. A new life of Clement of Rome ; 2. The Book of Shem, Son of Noah ;
3. Fragment from the Philosopher Andronicus and Asaph, the Historian of the Jews. Syriac
Texts edited with translations by A. Mingana, D.D. 1917. 8vo, pp. 62. ' ^Boards, 2s. net
THE BOOK OF RELIGION AND EMPIRE. A semi-official defence and exposition of
Islam, written by. order at the Court and with the assistance of the Caliph Mutawakkit
(A.D. 847-861). By AH Tabari. Translated with a critical apparatus from an apparently
unique MS. in the John Rylands Library by A. Mingana, D.D. 8vo, pp. xxiv, 174. Cloth,
I On, 6d. net.
\* Hitherto, as far as we have been able to ascertain, no such apology of Islam, of so early a
date, and of such outstanding importance, by a learned Muhammadan doctor, has been known to
exist. The work is of first-rate importance to the Muslim, and not of less importance to every
oriental scholar, whilst to those interested in theological questions it cannot fail to be of interest. It
follows generally the " Apology of the Christian Faith " of Al Kindi, which the author probably
intended Jo refute. It contains about 130 long Biblical quotations to prove the divine mission
of the prophet, which follow the Syriac version of the Bible, said in the MS. to have been trans-
lated by " Marcus the Interpreter," who may probably be identified with " Mark the Evangelist,"
who is credited by a Syriac authority with having made a translation of the Old Testament into
Aramaic or Syriac.
CATALOGUES OF PRINTED BOOKS IN THE JOHN
CATALOGUE OF THE PRINTED BOOKS AND MANUSCRIPTS IN THE
JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. 1899. 3 pis. 4to, cloth. 31s.6d.net.
%* A brief-title author catalogue of the printed books, including the Althorp collection, and
the few manuscripts with which the library shelves were equipped at the time of its inauguration.
CATALOGUE OF BOOKS IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY PRINTED
IN ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, AND IRELAND, and of Books in English printed
abroad to the end of the Year 1640. 1895. 4to, PP . iii, 147. Cloth, I Os. 6d. net.
V A brief-title author catalogue, with an index of printers, under which is a chronological
list of books printed by them.
THE ENGLISH BIBLE IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY, 1525 to 1640. By
Richard Lovett. 1899. Fol, pp. xvi, 275, with twenty-six facsimiles in collotype, and
thirty-nine engravings. Bound in full morocco. 5 guineas.
\* Of this sumptuous volume only 100 copies were printed for private circulation by Mrs.
Rylands. Very few copies remain.
A CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE OF THE WORKS ON ARCHITECTURE AND
THE ALLIED ARTS IN THE PRINCIPAL LIBRARIES OF MANCHESTER
AND SALFORD, with alphabetical author list and subject index. Edited for the Archi-
tectural Committee of Manchester by Henry Guppy, M.A., and Guthnc Vine, M.A. 1909.
8vo, pp. xxv, 310. 3s. 6d. net, or interleaved 4s. 6d. rut.
V Jbii catalogue is the first of its kind to be issued, with the exception of a few union lists
of periodicals and incunabula,
THE JOHN RYLANDS FACSIMILES.
A series of reproductions of some of the more interesting and important of the rarer books in
the possession of the library. The volumes consist of minutely accurate facsimiles of the works
selected, preceded by bibliographical introductions.
PROPOSITIO JpHANNIS RUSSELL, printed by William Caxton, circa A.D. 1476.
. . . With an introduction by Henry Guppy, M.A. 1909. 8vo, pp. 36, 8. 3s. 6d. net.
%* An oration, pronounced by John Russell, Chancellor of England, on the investiture of
Charles, Dukeof Burgundy, with the Order of the Garter, in February, 1 469, at Ghent. For many
years the copy now in the John Rylands Library was considered to be unique. Until 1807 it lay
buried and unnoticed in the heart of a volume of manuscripts, with which it had evidently been
bound up by mistake. Since then, another copy has been discovered in the library at Holkam Hall,
the seat of the Earl of Leicester.
A BOOKE IN ENGLYSH METRE, of the Great Marchaunt man called "Dives Prag-
maticus". . . . 1563. . . . With an introduction by Percy E. Newbery, M.A. ; and remarks
on the vocabulary and dialect with a glossary by Henry C. Wyld, M.A. 1910, 4to, pp.
xxxviii, 16. 5s. net.
%* The tract here reproduced is believed to be the sole surviving copy of a quaint little primer
which had the laudable object of instructing the young in the names of trades, professions, ranks,
and common objects of daily life in their own tongue.
A LITIL BOKE the whiche traytied and reherced many gode thmges necessaries for the ...
Pestilence . . . made by the ... Bisshop of Arusiens. . . . [London], [1485 ?]. . . .
With an introduction by Guthrie Vine, M.A. 1910. 4to, pp. xxxvi, 18. 5s. net.
%* Of this little tract, consisting of nine leaves, written by Benedict Kanuti, or Knutsson,
Bishop of Vasteras, three separate editions are known, but only one copy of each, and an odd leaf
are known to have survived. There is no indication in any edition of the place of printing, dale or
name of printer, but they are all printed in one of the five types employed by William de Machlinia,
who printed first in partnership with John Lettou and aftei wards alone in the City of London, at the
time when William Caxton was at the most active period of his career at Westminster.
WOODCUTS OF THE FIFFEENTH CENTURY IN THE JOHN RYLANDS
LIBRARY. Reproduced in facsimile. With an introduction and descriptive notes by
Campbell Dodgson, M.A. Folio. Ten plates, of which two are in colour, and 16 pp. of
text, in a portfolio. 7s. 6d. t^t.
* 9 * Two of these woodcuts are of exceptional interest and importance, and have been known
and celebrated for a century and a half, but have not hitherto been reproduced in a satisfactory
manner by any of the modern photo-mechanical processes. The two woodcuts referred to represent
" St. Christopher " and " The Annunciation," the former of which has acquired a great celebrity
by reason of the date (1423) which it bears, and which, until recently, gave to it the unchallenged
position of the first dated woodcut.
THE ODES AND PSALMS OF SOLOMON. Facsimile in collotype of the original Syriac
manuscript in the John Rylands Library, accompanied by a typographical reprint or trans-
literation of the text, a revised translation in English Versicles, and an exhaustive introduction
dealing with the variations of the fragmentary manuscripts in the British Museum, the accessory
patristic testimonies, and a summary of the most important criticisms that have appeared since
its first publication in 1909. By J. Rendel Harris, M.A., D.Litt., etc., Hon. Fellow of Clare
College, Cambridge, and Alphonse Mingana, D.D. 2 vols. 4to.
Vol. ! : The text, with facsimile reproductions. I Os. 6d. nc.t.
Vol. 2 : Translation and introduction. I guinea net.
MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC 'AT10NS.
THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY: A Brief Record of Twenty-one Years' Work
(MCM-January MCMXXI). By Henry Guppy, M.A. 8vo, pp. xiv, 58, with forty-three
views and facsimiles. One Shilling net.
*.* This was written to commemorate the library's coming of age.
A BRIEF HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE JOHN RYLANDS
and its Contents. By Henry Guppy, M.A. 1914. 8vo, pp. xvi, 73, with thirty-seven
views and facsimiles. One shilling net.
AN ANALYTICAL CATALOGUE OF THE CONTENTS OF THE TWO EDI-
TIONS OF "AN ENGLISH GARNER," compiled by Edward Arber (1877-97), and
rearranged under the editorship of Thomas Seccombe (1903-04). Edited by Henry Guppy,
M.A. 1909. 8vo, pp. vi.i, 221. One Shilling net.
THE ASCENT OF OLYMPUS. By J. Rendel Han is, M.A., D.Litt., etc. Demy 8vo,
pp. 140. 20 Illustrations. 5s. net.
%* A leprint, with corrections, expansions, justifications, and additional illustrations, of the
four articles on Greek Mythology, Aphiodite, Apollo, Artemis, and Dionysos, which have appeared
in the '* Bulletin " from time to time.
THE EVOLUTION OF THE DRAGON. By G. Elhot Smith, M.A., M.D., F.R.S.,
etc. 1919. Demy 8vo, pp. xx, 234, with 26 plates and many illustrations in the text. Cloth.
IOs. 6d. net.
* f * An elaboration of three lectures delivered in the John Rylands Library on " Incense and
Libations," *' Dragons and Ram Gods," and "The Birth of Aphrodite".
AILRED OF RIEVAULX AND HIS BIOGRAPHER, WALTER DANIEL. By
F. M. Powicke, M.A., Litt.D. 1922. 8vo, pp. vi, 1 12, with facsimile. 3s. 6d. net.
%* Compiled, tianslated, and edited from a twelfth century MS. recently acquired by the John
Rylands Libiaiy, nnd another MS. in Jesus College, Cambridge.
THE BULLETIN OF I HE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY. Edited by the Librarian.
It appears twice each year, in the months of Januaiy and July. The numbers usually run to
about 1 50 pages, and are often illustrated with facsimiles and other pictorial matter. 2s. n-c-t each
It is. now in its seventh volume, but all the preceding volumes (except the first) are still pro-
curable as follows : Vols. 2, 1914-1 5 (4 parts), 4s. wt ; 3, 1916-17 (4 parts), 4s. net ; 4, 1917-
18 (4 part,), 4,. net , 5, 1918-20 (5 parts), 6s. net ; 6, 1921-22 (4 parts), 8s. net.
%* This publication was commenced in 1903, with the object of providing a medium of com-
munication between the hbraiy, its readers and others who might be interested in its work, and
at the same time of icveahng to students and loveis of literature the opportunities for research which
such a libraiy holds out.
It was continued by annual issues until 1908, when by reason of the exigencies of other work
it was found nccessaiy to suspend publication.
In Octobei, 1914, publication was resumed in icsponse to repeated inquiries, which seemed to
reveal the need for some such link between the hbraiy and those in various parts, of the woild who
were interested in its operations.
Such was the enthusiastic welcome accorded to the "Bulletin" in its levived form, that we
were encouraged to make an attempt to develop its literary character, and in this we have been
successful through the assistance of a number of scholars, who have very generously furnished us
with a regular succession of original articles, the outstanding importance of which may be gathered
by a glance at the accompanying list of reprints. In this way a place has been assured to it
amongst the periodicals of a genuine literary standing.
REPRINTS OF ARTIC L S WHICH APPEARED ORIGIN \LLf
IN THE "BULLETIN Or T'r'.L ]0tttt ELANDS LIBRARY."
With scarcely an exception these monographs embody the results of new and original investiga-
tions by scholars of the highest eminence, who have thereby imparted a fresh stimulus to study in
their respective fields of research.
Demy 8vo. One shilling net each, unless otherwise stated.
CONWAY (R. S.), Litt.D., F.B.A. The Youth of Vergil. 1915. Pp. 28.
-- The Philosophy of Vergil. 1 922. Pp. 1 8.
-- The Venetian Point of View in Roman History. 1917-18. Pp. 22.
- The Portrait of a Roman Gentleman from Livy. 1922. Pp. 16.
GRENFELL (B. P.), D.Litt., F.B.A. The Present Position of Papyrology. Pp. 21.
HARRIS (J. RENDEL), Litt.D., D.Theol., etc. The Origin of the Cult of Aphrodite.
1916. Pp. 30. With 9 illustrations.
-- The Origin of the Cult of Appolo. 1916. Pp. 40. With frontispiece and illustrations.
-- The Origin of the Cult of Artemis. 1916. Pp.39. With illustrations.
-- The Origin of the Cult of Dionysos. 1915. Pp. 17. With illustrations.
--- The Origin and Meaning of Apple Cults. 1919. Pp.52. With illustrations. 2s.
SOUTER (ALEXANDER), M.A., D.Litt. List of Abbreviations and Contractions, etc.,
in the John Rylands Libiary Latin Manuscript, No. 15. 1919. Pp. 7.
BRUTON (F. A.), M.A., Litt.D The Story of Peterloo. Written for the centenary, 16th
August 1919. 8vo, pp. 45. With plates. 2s.
HARRIS (J. RENDEL), L.tt.D., D.Theol., etc. Three Letters of John Eliot and a Bill of
Lading of the "Mayflower"'. 1919. Hyo, pp. 11. With frontispiece.
PERRY (W. J.), B.A. War and Civilisation, 1917-18. 8vo, pp. 27. With 9'Sketch Maps.
POW1CKE (FREDERICK J.), M.A., Ph.D. Eleven Letters of John, Second Ea.l of
Lauderdale (and First Duke), 1616-82, to the Rev. Richard Baxter (1615-91). 1922.
8vo, pp. 33.
THUMB (A.). The Modern Greek and his Ancestry. 1914, 8vo, pp. 27.
TOUT (T. F.), M.A., Litt.D., F.B.A. The Captivity and Death of Edward of Carnarvon,
1920, 8vo,pp. 49. 2s.
--- The English Civil Service in the Fourteenth Century. 1916. 8vo, pp. 32.
-- Mediaeval and Modern Warfare. 1919. 8vo, pp. 28.
-- A Mediaeval Burglary. 1915. 8vo, pp. 24. With illustrations.
--- Mediaeval Forgers and Forgeries. 1920. 8vo, pp. 31.
--- Mediaeval Town Planning. 1917. 8vo, pp. 35. With 1 1 illustrations. 2s.
SMITH (G. ELLIOT), M.A., M.D., F.R.S,, etc. The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Civili-
sation in the East and in America. 1916. Pp. 32. With 7 illustrations. ,
REPRINTS OF ARTICLES, ETC-c
HERFORD (C. H.), M.A., Lilt.D., etc. Gabriele d'Annunzio. 1920, Pp. 27.
National and International Ideals in the English Poets. 1916. Pp. 24.
Norse Myth in English Poetry. 1919. Pp. 31 .
The Poetry of Lucretius. 1918. Pp. 26.
Recent Tendencies in European Poetry. 1921. Pp. 27.
Some Approaches to Religion through Poetry during the past Two Generations. 1922.
GUPPY (HENRY), MA, D.Phil. A Brief Sketch of the Life and Times of Shakespeare.
With a Chronological Table of the piincipal Events. 1916. Pp. 30 With frontispiece.
Dante Alighieri, 1321-1921. An appreciation, in commemoration of the Six-hundredth
Anniversary of the Poet's Death. Pp. 1 3. With 3 facsimiles.
POEL (WILLIAM). Prominent Points in the Life and Writings of Shakespeare. Arranged
in four tables. 1919. 'Pp. 12.
Some Notes on Shakespeare's Stage and Plays. 1916. Pp. 16. With 3 illustrations.
BUCKLE (D. P.), M.A. The Forty Martyrs of Sebasle. A Study of Hagiographic Develop-'
ment. 1921. Pp.9. With 4 facsimiles.
HARRIS (J. RENDEL), Litt.D., D.Theol., etc. Metrical Fragments in iii. Maccabees.
1920. Pp. 13.
Celsus and Aristides. 1921. Pp. 13.
Marcion's Book of Contradictions. 1 92 1 . Pp. 2 1 .
Stoic Origins of the Fourth Gospel. 1 922. Pp. 1 3.
HOSK1ER (H. C.). Manuscripts of the Apocalypse : Recent Investigations. Part 1. 1922.
Pp. 20. With 5 facsimiles.
"MINGANA (A.), D.D. Synopsis of Christian Doctrine in the Fourth Century according to
Theodore of Mopsuestia. 1 920. Pp. 2 1 .
PEAKE (A. S.), M.A., D.D., etc. The Quintessence of Paulmism. 1917-18. Pp.31.
The Roots of Hebrew Prophecy and Jewish Apocalyptic. 1923. Pp. 28.
F he Movement of Old Testament Scholarship in the Nineteenth Century. Synopsis of a
Lecture in the John Rylands Library on Nov. 1 1, 1903. With some leading Dates in
Pentateuch Criticism. 1903. Pp. 8.
Bibliographical Notes for the Study of the Old Testament. 1913. Pp. 7.
Bibliographical Notes for Students of the New Testament. 1914. Pp. 10.
POWICKE (FREDERICK J.), M.A., Ph.D. A Puritan Idyll ; or, Richard Baxter's Love
Story. 1917. Pp.35.
The Story and Significance of the Rev. Richard Baxter's "Saints' everlasting rest ". 1920.
Pp. 35. With frontispiece.
JAMES HOPE MOULTON, 1863-1917. I. A B.ogiaphical Sketch, with some Account of
his Literary Legacies. By W. Fiddian Mouhon, M.A. 2. A Record of Professor J. H.
Moult on' s Work, with some explanation of its significance. By A. S. Peake, M.A., D.D.
3. Letter from Dr. Rendel Harris to the Rev. W. Fiddian Moulton. 1917. Pp. 18.
ESEN (L. VAN DER). La Bibliolhcque de 1'Universite' de Louvain. . . . Steps towards
the reconstruction of the Library of the University of Louvain. [By H. Guppy.) 1915.
HARRIS (J. RENDEL), Litt.D., D.Theol., etc. The Woodpecker in Human Form. 1920.
RIVERS (W. H. R.). Dreams and Primitive Culture. 1917-18. Pp.28.
Mind and Medicine. Second edition. 1920. Pp.23.
CATALOGUE OF THE MANUSCRIPTS, BOOKS, AND BOOK-BIN DINGS
EXHIBITED AT THE OPENING OF THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY,
October 6th, 1899. 1899. 8vo, pp. 41. [OiU of print.
THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY: a brief description of the building and its contents,
with a descriptive list of the works exhibited in the main library. By Heniy Guppy. 1902.
8vo, pp. 47.
CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF BIBLES IN THE JOHN RYLANDS
LIBRARY, illustrating the history of the English versions from Wiclif to the present time.
Including the personal copies of Queen Elizabeth, General Gordon, and Elizabeth Fry.
1904. 8vo, PP . 32. Is. net.
A BRIEF HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY
AND ITS CON TENTS, with catalogue of the selection of eaily printed Greek and Latin
classics exhibited on the occasion of the visit of the Classical Association in October MCMVI.
1906. 8vo, pp. 89. With plates. Is. net.
CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF BIBLES IN THE JOHN RYLANDS
LIBRARY, illustrating the history of the English versions from Wiclif to the present time,
including the personal copies of Queen Elizabeth, Elizabeth Fry, and others. 1907. 8vo,
pp. vii, 55. With plates. Is. net.
CATALOGUE OF THE SELECTION OF BOOKS AND BROADSIDES ILLUS-
TRATING THE EARLY HISTORY OF PRINTING, exhibited in the John
Ry lands Library on the occasion of the visit of the Federation of Master Printers and Allied
Trades in June, MCMVII. 1907. 8vo, pp. v, 34. [Out of j.rinf.
CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS,
PRINCIPALLY BIBLICAL AND LITURGICAL, exhibited in the John Rylands
Library on the occasion of the meeting of the Church Congress in October, MCMVI11. 1908.
8vo, pp. vii, 62. With plates. Is. net.
CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY
OF THE ORIGINAL EDITIONS OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS OF JOHN
MILTON, ananged in celebration of the tercentenary of his birth. 1908. 8vo, pp. 24.
CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF THE WORKS OF DANTE
ALIGHIERI, shown m the John Rylands Library from March to October, MCMIX.
1909. 8vo, pp. xii, 55. Is. net.
CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF ORIGINAL EDITIONS OF THK
PRINCIPAL ENGLISH CLASSICS, shown in the John Rylands Library from March
to October, MCMX. 1910. 8vo, pp. xv, 64. Is. net.
CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF MANUSCRIPTS AND PRINTED
COPIES OF THE SCRIPTURES, illustrating the histoiy of the transmission of the
Bible, shown in the John Rylands Libraiy fiom March to December, MCMXI. Ter-
centenary of the "Authorised version" of the English Bible: A.D. 1611-1911. 1911.
8vo, pp. xiv, 128. With plates. [Ont of print.
CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION OF MED1/EVAL MANUSCRIPTS AND
JEWELLED BOOK COVERS, shown in the John Rylands Library from January XII
to December, MCMXII, including Lists of Palaeographical Works and of Historical
Periodicals in the John Rylands Library. 1912. 8vo, pp. xiii, 134. With plates. Is. net.
A BRIEF HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY
AND ITS CONTENTS, with Catalogue of a Selection of Manuscripts and Piinted Books
exhibited on the occasion of the visit of the Congregational Union of England and Wales in
October, MCMXII. With illustrations. Edited by Henry Guppy. 1912. 8vo, pp. x,
143. [Out of print.
CATALOGUE OF AN EXHIBITION IN THE JOHN RYLANDS LIBRARY
OF THE WORKS OF SHAKESPEARE, his sources, and the writings of his
principal contemporaries. With an introductory sketch by Henry Guppy, and sixteen fac-
similes. Tercentenary of the death of Shakespeare, April 23rd, V9I6. 1916. Second edition.
8vo, pp. xvi, 169. \*.net.